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Word Text
 > greater than or equal to
 2-phenoxyethanol a preservative used in the manufacture certain vaccines
 2-phenoxyethanol² a preservative used to make certain vaccines
 24/7 available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 2766 Adult Preventive and Chronic Care Flowsheet
 2767 AF Form 2767, Occupational Health Training and Protective Equipment and Fit Testing
 abscesses localized, inflammed areas that contain pus
 abrasions scrapes
 accelerated compressed into a shorter amount of time
 acknowledgement a signed statement that a person has read important information about smallpox and smallpox vaccine, understands what he or she has read, and agrees to voluntarily receive smallpox vaccine
 acellular not containing cells
 acetaminophen medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever
 acid-fast bacilli bacilli (bacteria) that retain their color when expose to an acidic alcohol solution after they have been stained; includes the tubercle bacillus that causes TB
 ACIP abbreviation for Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
 ACLS abbreviation for Advanced Cardiac Life Support
 acquired immune deficiency syndrome also called AIDS; is a medical condition in which the immune system cannot function properly and protect the body from disease; as a result, the body cannot defend itself against infections (such as pneumonia); AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
 active immunity long-term immunity conferred through memory cells capable of making antibodies against a particular antigen
 active immunization a procedure used to stimulate antibody production by the administration of a specific antigen in an effort to thwart a specific pathogen or clinical disease in the future
 acupuncture a medical treatment that involves inserting needles
 acute something that has a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course, e.g., an acute illness; opposite of chronic
 acute respiratory disease development of sudden difficult breathing due to infection or injury to the airway or lungs
 acyclovir a medication that inhibits replication of human herpes viruses, including VZV; available for oral and intravenous administration
 adaptive immune system the body's infection-fighting defense mechanisms that develops throughout life and is designed to respond to specific antigens; initially requires several days to become protective, and then can both recognize and remember different antigens so that the infection-fighting response is quicker
 additives that are added to other things to improve, strengthen or preserve them
 adenoids glands located above the soft roof of the mouth (nasopharynx) that help the body to fight infection by trapping bacteria and viruses that enter through the mouth and nose
 adenovirus a virus that can cause a spectrum of respiratory disease, as well as infection of the stomach and intestine (gastroenteritis), eyes (conjunctivitis), bladder (cystitis), and rash. Adenovirus respiratory diseases include a form of the common cold, pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Patients with compromised immune systems are especially susceptible to severe complications of adenovirus infection. Acute respiratory disease (ARD), a disorder first recognized among military recruits during World War II, can be caused by adenovirus infections under conditions of crowding and stress. Adenoviruses are transmitted by direct contact, fecal-oral transmission, and occasionally waterborne transmission. Some types of adenoviruses are capable of establishing persistent asymptomatic infections in the tonsils, adenoids, and intestines. Shedding of the virus can occur for months or years after the initial infection.
 adjuvant substance that enhances the effectiveness of another substance, e.g., aluminum hydroxide in vaccines
 adrenal gland a gland that produced adrenaline and other hormones
 adrenaline a stress hormone released by the adrenal glad; also called epinephine
 adsorbed attachment to the surface of an object; several vaccines are adsorbed onto the surface of aluminum compounds to increase the body's antibody response to the vaccine
 adsorption attachment of one substance to the surface of another; in the case of vaccines, the process of adding an aluminum adjuvant to a vaccine antigen in order to increase its immunogenicity
 advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) interventions beyond basic life support; includes defibrillation, administration of medications, and insertion of an endotracheal tube with assisted ventilations; ACLS requires specialized training
 adverse effects unwanted reactions or events that occur after a vaccine is given
 adverse events unwanted reactions, events, or side effects that occur after a vaccine is given
 adverse reaction unwanted reaction, event, or side effect that occurs after a vaccine is given
 adverse reaction² unwanted reactions, events, or side effects that occur after a medication is given
 adverse reactions unwanted reactions, events, or side effects that occur after a vaccine is given
 adverse reactions² unwanted reactions, events, or side effects that occur after a medication is given
 advocacy active and honest support for a cause or idea
 aeroallergens allergens that are found in the air, such as dust and pollen
 aerosol exposure exposure to spores or germs that are dispersed in the air as fine droplets in a spray
 aerosolization the suspension of fine particles of a solution in the air
 aerosolized dispersed as fine droplets in a spray
 aerosols dispersions of particles as fine droplets in a spray
 afebrile absence of a fever
 AFCITA acronym for Air Force Complete Immunization Tracking Application
 agammaglobulinemia a rare condition in which a person is either born with or acquires a deficiency of gamma globulin in the blood, which causes the person to be susceptible to infections
 AIDS an acquired immune deficiency syndrome that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); results in infections, malignancies, and neurological lesions
 AIDS² an acquired immune deficiency syndrome that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); results in infections, cancers, and nervous system problems
 airborne carried or transported through the air
 albumin a type of protein that is widely found in plants and animals
 albumin² a water soluble protein found in the blood.
 alcoholism addiction to alcohol
 alkylating agent a cancer treatment that inhibits the division and growth of cancer cells
 allergen any substance that produces an allergic response
 allergen cross-reactivity when two allergens are similar, a person sensitive to one allergen will also show sensitivity to the other similar allergen
 allergen immunotherapy the repeated administration of specific allergens to patients with IgE-mediated allergies for the purpose of providing protection against allergic symptoms caused by natural exposure to these allergens
 allergen immunotherapy extracts a mixture of allergen extract(s) used for allergen immunotherapy; mixture may contain one or more allergenic and nonallergenic substances, such as proteins, glycoprotiens, and polysaccharides; other terms used include allergen product, allergy serum, allergen vaccine, and allergen solution
 allergens any substance that produces an allergic response
 allergic hypersensitivity to a substance that is normally harmless to most people
 allergic reaction a physical reaction to a substance that is harmless to most people; hypersensitivity
 allergic reaction² an overreaction to a certain substance, such as a vaccine component, that does not affect most people
 allergic reactions a physical reaction to a substance that is harmless to most people; hypersensitivity
 allergic rhinitis excess mucus production in the airways in response to an allergen
 allergist a medical specialist in allergies
 allergist-immunologist a physician who specializes in the care of allergies and in immunology, which is the study of the immune system
 allergies overreactions to certain substances that do not affect most people
 allergy an overreaction to a certain substance, such as a vaccine component, that does not affect most people
 allergy units measure used to express the potency of allergy proteins found in a standardized allergen extract based on actual skin testing measurements
 alternate switch; go back and forth between
 alum a substance used in vaccines to help make them more effective
 aluminum substance sometimes used when making vaccines
 aluminum hydroxide a substance sometimes used when making vaccines to make them more effective
 aluminum phosphate a component of some vaccines used to increase effectiveness
 alveoli the air cells of the lungs
 alveoli² the air sacs in the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged with the bloodstream
 ambient temperature temperature in the surrounding air; may be used to refer to room temperature
 Amoxil type of antibiotic that contains penicillin
 amphotericin B an antibiotic that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 ampicillin type of antibiotic that contains penicillin
 amplifying hosts animals that produce and maintain high levels of an infecting virus or bacteria
 anaerobic able to survive only in an environment in which there is no oxygen
 anamnestic of or relating to a second rapid increase in production of antibodies in response to an immunogenic substance after serum antibodies from a first response can no longer be detected in the blood
 anaphylactic reaction a serious and sometimes fatal allergic reaction to an antigen characterized by respiratory symptoms, fainting, itching, and hives
 anaphylactoid a reaction that resembles anaphylaxis, but which is not caused by the linking of antigens to mast cells and basophils by IgE
 anaphylactoid reaction reaction that has symptoms similar to those of anaphylaxis, but is triggered instead by non-IgE mechanisms; includes reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen), radiocontrast dye (used for x-ray studies), and exercise
 anaphylaxis a severe and sometimes fatal allergic reaction that can cause hives, itching, respiratory difficulty, and shock
 anatomic or functional asplenia not having a spleen (anatomic) or having a spleen that does not function properly (functional), e.g., due to sickle cell disease
 anergy tolerance whereby lymphocytes recognize but do not respond to an antigen
 anergy testing if anergy testing is ordered, PPD is administered into one arm, and two companion antigens (e.g., Candida, tetanus, mumps) are administered into the other arm. If there is less than 3 mm induration in reaction to either of the companion antigens, the person is considered anergic. To decide whether or not the person is likely to be infected with TB, other factors must be considered, such as recent exposure to TB.
 angina chest pain caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart
 angioedema an allergic skin condition that results in sudden, painless swelling lasting a short time; it can affect the face, neck, lips, throat, and extremities
 angioedema² an allergic skin condition that results in sudden, painless swelling lasting a short time; it can affect the face, neck, lips, throat, and extremities; angioedema is actually "hives" of the deeper tissue
 anorexia loss of appetite
 antagonize work against; act in opposition to
 anterolateral the area on the front and outer aspect of the thigh
 anthrax an infectious bacterial disease caused by Bacillius anthracis, which can infect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and/or respiratory system; treatable with certain antibiotics if infection is detected early, but can be fatal; anthrax bacteria could be used as a bioterrorism weapon
 anthrax² an acute infectious disease of animals that can be secondarily transmitted to humans. It is caused by a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) that primarily affects sheep, horses, hogs, cattle, and goats and is almost always fatal in animals. The bacillus produces toxins that kill cells and cause fluid to accumulate in the body's tissues. Anthrax spores, which can survive for decades, are found in the soil, and animals typically contract the disease while grazing. Transmission to humans normally occurs through contact with infected animals but can also occur through eating meat from an infected animal or breathing air laden with the spores of the bacilli. The disease is almost entirely occupational, i.e., restricted to individuals who handle hides of animals (e.g., farmers, butchers, and veterinarians) or sort wool.
 antibacterial a substance, often a drug, that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria
 antibiotic a substance used to treat infections by killing or inhibiting microbes
 antibiotics substances used to treat infections by killing or inhibiting microbes
 antibiotics² substances used to treat infections by killing or blocking microbes
 antibodies substances made by the body in response to antigens. Antibodies bind with antigens on bacteria and viruses to protect the body against infection.
 antibodies² substances made by the body in response to antigens (bacteria, viruses, allergens, etc.); antibodies help protect the body against infection.
 antibody protein produced by plasma cells in response to antigens. Antibodies bind with antigens on bacteria and viruses to protect against infection. Synonymous technical terms are immune globulin or immunoglobulin.
 antibody² substances made by the body in response to antigens; there are different types; IgG, IgM, and IgA help defend the body against viruses and bacteria; IgE can cause an allergic reaction when it comes in contact with an allergen
 antibody-containing blood product blood product, such as red blood cells or immune globulin, that contains antibodies; antibodies are proteins that help the immune system to protect the body; if antibody levels are high, live vaccines may not work to protect the body
 anticonvulsants medications that help to prevent or control seizures
 antidepressants medications which are used to treat depression
 antigens substances that are not supposed to be in the body, such as bacteria, viruses, toxins, or cells from other people, that stimulate the immune system to trigger an immune response
 antigens² substances that can combine with an antibodies; the 'active ingredient' in vaccines
 antigen-antibody interaction a process in which an antigen binds to an antibody, inducing certain responses in the host that act to protect it
 antigen substances that can combine with an antibodies; the 'active ingredient' in vaccines
 antigen-presenting cells leukocytes (white blood cells) that cut, process, and attach antigens to their cell membranes (for inspection by helper T cells); not pathogen-specific
 antihistamines drugs given to counteract histamine, which causes allergy symptoms and rashes
 antihistamines² a drug given to counteract histamine, which is the chemical released by mast cells in the body in response to an allergen; histamine causes allergy symptoms
 anti-inflammatory a medication that prevents or reduces inflammation
 antimalarial a medication that prevents or treats the symptoms of malaria
 antimetabolite a drug used to treat cancer
 antimicrobial something that destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria
 antipruritic something that relieves itching
 antitoxin a substance that counteracts a toxin or poison; a solution of antibodies prepared from the serum of animals immunized with specific antigens (e.g., diphtheria, tetanus) and used to achieve short-term passive immunity in humans who may lack protective antibodies
 antiviral a medication that kills or inhibits the growth and replication of viruses
 apical referring to the top part of a structure
 apoptosis programmed cell death triggered by proteins and affected by enzymes
 aqueous containing or dissolved in water
 arrhythmia any change in the normal pattern of the heart beat
 arrhythmia² any change in the normal pattern of the heart beat; more properly called dysrhythmia
 arthralgia pain in the joints
 arthritis inflammation of the joints that causes swelling, stiffness, and pain
 arthus-like reaction reaction involving painful swelling, often from the shoulder to the elbow, which begins 2 to 8 hours after deltoid injection of Td; reported most often in adults, especially those who have received frequent doses of tetanus toxoid and who have high levels of serum tetanus antitoxin
 arthus-type reaction reaction involving painful swelling, often from the shoulder to the elbow, which begins 2 to 8 hours after deltoid injection of Td; reported most often in adults, especially those who have received frequent doses of tetanus toxoid and who have high levels of serum tetanus antitoxin
 aseptic germ-free; no disease-causing microbes present. In this case, asymptomatic aseptic meningitis means that the meninges are inflamed, but that the inflammation is not caused by microbes present in the meninges.
 aseptic meningitis viral infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
 aspirate to remove liquid through use of suction
 aspiration inhalation of foreign matter into the lungs
 aspiration precautions interventions that prevent fluids and other substances, especially stomach contents, from entering the lungs; precautions include keeping the head of the bed elevated to at least 30 degrees at all times
 aspirin an over-the-counter medicine used to relieve pain and treat fever
 asplenia lack of a functioning spleen
 asplenic lacking a functioning spleen
 asthma a chronic respiratory disease characterized by constriction of the bronchial tubes to the lungs, which causes sudden and recurring breathing problems, coughing, and chest tightness
 asthma² a chronic respiratory disease that causes the airways to narrow, which causes sudden and recurring breathing problems, coughing, and chest tightness
 asymmetric not the same on both sides, e.g., in asymmetric weakness of the legs, one leg may be weaker than the other
 asymptomatic infected with a disease but showing no symptoms of that disease
 atopic related to or caused by a hereditary predisposition toward developing allergic reactions
 atopic dermatitis a chronic skin disease characterized by itchy, inflammed skin
 atopy a tendency toward multiple allergies, e.g., atopic dermatitis
 atrophy a wasting away of or decrease in size
 atropine medication used to treat bradycardia, absence of a pulse, and absence of electrical activity in the heart
 attenuated weakened; a type of live vaccine too weak to cause disease in otherwise healthy people, but potent enough to provoke a protective antibody response
 attenuated² reduced severity of a disease; reduced virulence or vitality of a pathogenic agents, e.g., a viruses or bacteria
 antiseptic agents that kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms on the outside of the body
 ascospore a type of spore made by certain fungi
 asystole without electrical activity of the heart as indicated by electrocardiogram; also called "flat line"
 atypical unusual, not normal, or irregular
 atypical presentation an atypical presentation of smallpox can include symptoms that vary from ordinary smallpox in severity and duration, as well as differing types of lesions, including hemorrhagic lesions, flat lesions, and modified lesions
 audits systematic reviews of a medical cord to extract data related to the process and outcomes of care, and in order to make judgments about quality
 autism a developmental disability that first appears in early childhood; causes problems with communication, social interaction, and intelligence
 autoclave a method of cleaning that uses super-heated steam under pressure
 autoimmune a condition in which the body develops antibodies that destroy its own cells and tissues. Autoimmunity is a normal condition. In unusual situation in which autoimmunity goes awry, an autoimmune disorder may develop, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis or type 1 diabetes.
 autoimmune disease an attack of the immune system on the body's normal cells, tissues, or organs
 autoimmune hemolytic anemia a condition in which the body destroys its own red blood cells
 auto-injectable able to be automatically injected by a device that delivers a single dose of medication, e.g., an Epi-Pen or Twinject, which is used to treat severe allergic reactions
 autoinoculation the spread of infection from one part of the body to another part of the same body
 auto-inoculation the spread of infection from one part of the body to another part of the same body
 avian sensitin purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium avium complex, which is in the mycobacterium family
 axilla armpit
 bacilli bacteria that usually are rod-shaped
 bacteremia the presence of bacteria in the blood
 bacteria single-celled germs that can cause disease
 bacterial refers to single-celled germs that can cause disease
 bacterial meningitis an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord caused by a bacterial infection
 bacteriologic refers to the study or microscopic identification of bacteria
 bacteriological studies that test for the presence of bacteria, in this case M. tuberculosis
 bacteriophage a virus that infects a bacterial species
 bacterium a single-celled germ that can cause disease
 baseline refers to a patient's normal state, such as normal blood pressure, heart rate, or peak expiratory flow rate.
 basidiospore a type of spore made by certain fungi, especially mushrooms
 basophil a circulating white blood cell that contains histamines, which are released during an allergic reaction
 basophils circulating white blood cells that contain histamine, which is released during an allergic reaction
 bat guano a natural manure composed mainly of excrement (bodily waste) from bats
 B cell a type of lymphocytes (white blood cell) that, after becoming a plasma cell, makes antibodies
 BCG also called bacillus Calmette-Guérin: an attenuated strain of the tubercle bacillus used for tuberculosis immunization
 BCG² also called "bacillus Calmette-Guérin;" an attenuated strain of the tubercle bacillus used for tuberculosis immunization in some parts of the world that have a high incidence of TB. It is not routinely administered in the United States. The effectiveness of BCG vaccine varies greatly.
 benign not malignant; having a good prognosis
 benzethonium chloride an antiseptic and disinfectant, often used to kill bacteria or viruses in the manufacture of vaccines
 benzethonium chloride² an antiseptic and disinfectant, often used to kill bacteria or viruses when vaccines are made
 Beta-adrenergic blocking agents a class of medications frequently used to treat high blood pressure; also called a beta-blockers
 beta-blocker a class of medications frequently used to treat high blood pressure; more properly called a beta-adrenergic blocker
 bevel an angle; refers to the angle part of a needle; if the bevel is up, the point of the needle is at the bottom
 bifurcated needle a needle with 2 small prongs on the end; capillary action captures a small amount (0.0025 mL) of vaccine between the prongs; used for smallpox vaccination
 bifurcated needle² a needle with 2 small prongs on the end; a small amount (0.0025 mL) of vaccine is held between the prongs; used for smallpox vaccination
 bilateral on both sides
 bilirubin an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms when red blood cells break down; excess amounts in the blood produce the yellow appearance observed in jaundice
 bioequivalent allergy units this measure replaced allergy units; measure used to express the potency of allergy proteins found in a standardized allergen extract based on actual skin testing measurements
 biohazard waste container a container that holds different kinds of waste that might include infectious agents
 biohazardous existing as or containing a biological agent that has the ability to cause harm to other biological organisms
 biohazardous waste waste that might include infectious agents
 biological warfare use of biological agents (e.g., viruses, bacteria, toxins, molds) to kill or injure military personnel or civilians
 biopsy removing a small piece of tissue from the body for testing or examination
 bioterrorism use of biological agents (e.g., viruses, bacteria, toxins, molds) to kill or injure military personnel or civilians
 bioweapon disease-producing microorganisms or toxic biological products used as a weapon
 biphasic anaphylaxis anaphylaxis that occurs initially and then reappears at a later time without re-exposure to the allergen
 bivalent containing two vaccines or two sdifferent strains of antigens
 bladder an expandable, saclike structure that holds fluid; usually refers to the urinary bladder
 blepharospasm spasmodic winking caused by the involuntary contraction of an eyelid muscle
 blisters a swelling on the skin filled with watery fluid
 blood products transfusions or medications made from blood, blood cells, and/or blood serum; blood products may contain antibodies that can temporarily make certain vaccines ineffective
 blood products² include blood, immunoglobulin, and other products made from blood
 bloodborne carried in the blood and spread through contact with blood
 bloodborne pathogens disease causing microorganisms that are carried in the blood and spread through contact with blood or certain other body fluids
 blood-borne pathogens disease causing microorganisms that are carried in the blood and spread through contact with blood or certain other body fluids
 blood dyscrasias diseased state of the blood, usually one in which the blood contains permanent abnormal cellular elements
 blood urea nitrogen a blood test that helps to measure kidney function; when the kidney is not working, the amount of nitrogen in the blood will rise
 bone marrow tissues located in the cavities of bones that are the source of all blood cells
 bone marrow² tissue in the middle of bones that makes the body's blood cells
 booster a supplemental vaccine dose needed to "boost" antibody levels after protection begins to decline
 booster dose a supplemental vaccine dose needed to "boost" antibody levels after protection begins to decline
 booster dose² a extra vaccine dose needed to "boost" protection after it begins to decline
 booster response seen when a person with a history TB infection does not react to a TST because his or her body's cell responses to tuberculin have gradually decreased over the years. A first TST may stimulate (boost) the immune system, so the second TST result will be positive. This phenomenon is important in infection control because it helps to distinguish between recent converters (a person whose TST results change from negative to positive within 12 to 24 months) and people who have been infected for a long time. This determines whether the person has been recently infected.
 boosting increasing antibody levels after protection begins to decline
 Botox a form of botulinum toxin type A that is used to paralyze small muscle of the face in order to minimize the appearance of wrinkles
 botulinum antitoxin a substance that counteracts botulinum toxin; a solution of antibodies prepared from the serum of animals immunized with botulinum that is used to achieve short-term passive immunity to botulism in humans who may lack protective antibodies
 bovine serum the clear fluid portion of the blood, in this case from a cow, that remains after clotting
 bowel obstruction blockage of the intestines
 brachial neuritis a usually self-limited neurologic condition that causes severe pain in the shoulder girdle and upper arm, weakness and atrophy of the muscles innervated by the brachial plexus, and mild sensory loss in the arm and shoulder
 bradycardia low heart rate
 breakthrough varicella infections infections that occur even though protective antibodies from varicella vaccination are present
 bronchial tubes the tubes that carry air from the nose and mouth into the lungs
 bronchitis inflammation of the bronchial tubes that carry air into the lungs
 bronchodilators medications that widen the air passages of the lungs and ease breathing by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle
 build-up phase involves giving injections with increasing amounts of allergens; frequency of injections is generally 1 to 3 times per week; duration of this phase depends on frequency of injections but generally lasts 3 to 6 months
 bulbar related to the "bulb" or the medulla part of the brain, which contains cranial nerves that control swallowing, breathing, and speech
 bulbospinal related to or connecting the medulla oblongata of the brain and the spinal cord
 cancer a disease in which there is abnormal cell growth
 cancer, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and generalized malignancy Cancer is a disease in which there is abnormal cell growth. In leukemia (a form of blood cancer) and lymphoma (cancer of the lymph tissues), there is excessive production of abnormal white blood cells, which are unable to fight off infections. Lack of normal white blood cells leads to severe immune suppression. The immune response of people with generalized malignancies (cancers that have spread, or metastasized, throughout the body) is weakened by tumor products and tumor-cell invasion of bone marrow and lymphoid spaces. People with leukemia in remission who have not received chemotherapy in at least 3 months can be given measles vaccine.
 cancerous of or related to a disease in which there is abnormal cell growth
 capsule a small, dissolvable container made of gelatin that contains one dose of oral medicine
 carcinoma cancer of the tissues that make up the skin, glands, mucous membranes, and organ linings
 carbon dioxide gas produced by the body during respiration; when oxygen is breathed in, carbon dioxide is breathed out
 cardiac related to the heart
 cardiomyopathies a disease of the heart muscle, usually chronic and with an unknown or obscure cause
 cardiopulmonary related to the heart and/or lungs
 cardiopulmonary arrest a condition in which a person's pulse and breathing stop
 cardiovascular related to the heart and blood vessels
 cardiovascular system related to the heart and blood vessels
 carrier a person who carries a disease-causing microbe and can transmit it to others, but who shows no symptoms of the disease
 carriers people who carry a disease-causing microbe for life, and who either are immune to the microbe or have recovered from illness caused by it
 cascade a chemical process that occurs in successive stages, with each stage depending on the preceding stage, resulting in a cumulative effect or an end product
 case-fatality rate the percentage of persons diagnosed as having a specified disease who die as a result of that disease within a given period
 case-fatality rates the percentage of persons diagnosed as having a specified disease who die as a result of that disease within a given period
 cataracts clouding of the lens of the eye that reduces the ability to see clearly; can lead to blindness
 catarrhal refers to inflammation of the nose and throat with increased production of mucus
 catch-up schedule a vaccination schedule for children who started a vaccine series late or who are more than one month behind the recommended schedule
 catheter a flexible, hollow tube that can be inserted into the body for a medical purpose, e.g., to drain fluids or air, or to help diagnose a health condition
 CD4+ T-lymphocyte count the number of a type of white blood cell that is important to the body's immune functioning
 cellular immunodeficiency impaired ability of the body to fight infection caused by a lack of or impaired functioning of T cells, which are cells derived from the thymus gland that play a major role in immune reactions
 cellular immunodeficiencies, such as AIDS or other clinical manifestations of HIV Cellular immunodeficiencies are caused by a lack of or impaired functioning of T cells, which are cells derived from the thymus gland that play a major role in immune reactions. HIV attacks CD4+ T-lymphocytes, which are a type of T cell. People who do not have adequate CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels are at risk for illness from live virus vaccines, such as varicella. HIV-infected children >=12 months of age in CDC clinical class N, A, or B with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts >=15% and without evidence of varicella immunity should receive two doses of single antigen varicella vaccine at a minimum interval of 3 months. Adolescents and adults with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/microliter or more can also receive varicella vaccine (2 doses, at least 3 months apart). Because routine screening of people for HIV is not done before varicella vaccination, if inadvertent vaccination of an HIV-infected person results in clinical disease, administering acyclovir may decrease the severity of the illness.
 cellular immunodeficiencies, such as AIDS or other clinical manifestations of HIV2 Cellular immunodeficiencies are caused by a lack of or impaired functioning of T cells, which are cells derived from the thymus gland that play a major role in immune reactions. HIV attacks CD4+ T-lymphocytes, which are a type of T cell. People who do not have adequate CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels are at risk for illness from live virus vaccines, such as yellow fever. For this reason, yellow fever vaccine should not be administered to people who have primary or acquired cellular immunodeficiencies, such as human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.
 cellular immunity immunity resulting from special white blood cells (T lymphocytes) that identify certain antigens as harmful to the body. These T cells are sensitized to recognize these antigens in the future, and to help attack and eliminate them.
 cell-mediated immune dysfunction a state in which there is an inadequate quantity or quality of certain blood cells (T lymphocytes) that are needed to recognize and neutralize foreign pathogens
 cell the smallest unit of structure and independent function in all plants and animals; consists of a semipermeable membrane that contains one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles
 cells in this case, "cells" refer to certain blood cells called T lymphocytes that help defend the body against infection by recognizing and neutralizing foreign pathogens
 cellulitis infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues that tends to spread; characterized by redness, warmth, swelling, tenderness; can be bacterial or viral
 central nervous system the brain and the spinal cord
 centrifugal pattern when referring to a rash, a pattern in which more of the rash is located on the head and extremities of the body
 centripetal pattern when referring to a rash, a pattern in which more of the rash is located toward the center of the body, i.e., the trunk
 cerebral palsy disorder usually caused by brain damage occurring at or before birth which causes severe muscular impairment, poor coordination, and sometimes speech and learning difficulties
 cerebrospinal relating to the brain and the spinal cord
 cerebrospinal fluid the fluid that protects and flows through the brain and spinal cord
 cervical cancer a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors
 cervical torticollis contraction of the neck muscles that causes the neck to rotate and tilt sideways, forwards, or backwards
 CD4 cells also called "helper T cells"; a kind of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that detects foreign proteins and initiates antibody production
 CD8 cells also called "killer T cells"; a kind of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that kills cancerous cells or cells infected with a virus
 CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 CHCS II acronym for Composite Health Care System II; the electronic medical record that supports the beneficiaries of the Military Health System Tricare Progam.
 chemoprophylaxis preventing disease using chemical agents (medications)
 chemotherapy drug treatment for cancer in which chemicals are administered to destroy cancer cells
 chemotherapy² drug treatment for cancer in which chemicals are administered to destroy cancer cells
 chickenpox also called varicella; an acute, contagious disease caused by the herpes zoster virus; characterized by a fever and a vesicular rash
 chills shaking from muscle contractions that occur as the body tries to increase its temperature
 chlortetracycline an antibiotic that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 cholera a serious infection of the small intestine caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria, which are spread by contaminated water
 cholestasis a block in bile flow
 cholesterol a fatty substance found in body tissues and blood that contributes to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and heart disease
 chronic lasting for a long time or marked by frequent recurrence
 chronic bronchitis inflammation of the bronchial tubes that carry air into the lungs
 chronic HBV infection life-long liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus
 chronic hepatitis B carriers people who have been infected with HBV and stay infected for life
 chronic hepatitis B infection people who have been infected with HBV and stay infected for life
 chronic obstructive lung disease also know as COPD; diseases, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis, in which there is generally permanent and progressive obstruction of air moving through the airways and out of the lungs
 chronological age the age of a person as measured from his or her birth
 cimetidine medication that has antihistamine properties, often given for gastrointestinal disorders
 circulatory system the body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood; functions to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove waste products
 circumscribed confined to a limited area
 cirrhosis a chronic and sometimes fatal liver disease
 clinical signs physical signs and symptoms of TB disease, such a cough, fever, hemoptysis, weight loss, and night sweats
 clone to create an identical genetic copy from a single original cell
 clones cells with identical sets of genes on their chromosomes
 clotting disorders conditions that cause the blood to clot very slowly or not at all; can cause serious bleeding problems
 clotting factor concentrates concentrated preparations of substances in the blood that are required for normal clotting
 clotting problem conditions that cause the blood to clot very slowly or not at all; can cause serious bleeding problems
 cluster immunotherapy an accelerated immunotherapy build-up schedule that involves giving several injections at increasing doses (generally 2 to 3 per visit) in a single day; the target dose is usually reached within 4 to 8 weeks
 CMV abbreviation for cytomegalovirus; a herpesvirus that infects 50% to 85% of US adults by age 40; infection may be asymptomatic, or cause a mononucleosis-like illness with prolonged fever and mild hepatitis; once infected, the virus remains alive (usually dormant) in the person for life; may recur if the immune system become suppressed
 cochlear implants surgically implanted device that allows people with severe hearing loss to recognize some sounds, especially speech sounds, and that consists chiefly of a microphone and receiver, a processor that converts speech into electronic signals, and an array of electrodes that transmit the signals to the auditory nerve in the inner ear
 cochlear implants² surgically implanted device that allows people with severe hearing loss to recognize some sounds, especially speech sounds
 cognitive relating to thought processes and brain function
 cold-adapted altered to grow at a temperature below core body temperature
 cold chain the process of preparing medical temperature-sensitive products for shipment using approved systems and procedures to ensure that required temperatures are maintained throughout the supply chain (manufacturing, shipping, storing, handling, and administration to patient) so that the products remain stable, effective, and safe
 cold-chain management the process of preparing medical temperature-sensitive products for shipment using approved systems and procedures to ensure that required temperatures are maintained throughout the supply chain (manufacturing, shipping, storing, handling, and administration to patient) so that the products remain stable, effective, and safe
 colloid-containing solutions fluids that contain proteins, such as fresh frozen plasma, albumin, and plasma protein fraction (e.g., Plasmanate); colloids are administered during an acute situation to expand the vascular volume and maintain blood pressure
 colonization a mass of microorganisms (germs) that grows in or on a surface
 colony a mass of microorganisms (germs) that may grow in or on a surface
 coma a state of deep unconsciousness
 combination vaccine a vaccine that contains two or more different vaccines to provide protection against more than one disease
 commensal bacteria bacteria that live on or inside the body and do not usually cause disease; some may even benefit the body (the host), e.g., certain bacteria that reside normally in the GI tract or vagina prevent pathogenic bacteria from flourishing and causing disease
 complement a group of proteins that circulate in the blood and help to destroy pathogens that have invaded the body; they attract other immune cells to help fight infection
 complete blood count (CBC) a blood test that measures the quantity of each type of blood cell in a given sample of blood, often including the amount of hemoglobin, the hematocrit, the number or red blood cells, and the proportions of various white cells
 compliance following treatment plan or directions
 compress a cloth pad, often moistened and pressed firmly against a part of the body as a treatment
 conceiving the act of fertilization; when the egg and sperm unite
 concentrated used to describe a substance, especially a liquid, made stronger by the removal of water or liquid
 conception fertilization; when the egg and sperm unite
 concurrent happening at the same time as something else; simultaneous
 confluent a rash that is confluent is one in which the lesions merge together so that it is difficult to see individual spots
 congenital immune deficiency a rare genetic condition present at birth that results in the immune system's inability to fight off infections
 congenital a condition that is present at birth
 congenital immunodeficiency a rare genetic condition present at birth that results in the immune system's inability to fight off infections
 congenital rubella syndrome a pattern of birth defects caused by rubella virus exposure during pregnancy
 Congenital Rubella Syndrome a pattern of birth defects caused by rubella virus exposure during pregnancy
 congenital varicella syndrome a syndrome that occurs in a fetus as a result of maternal varicella within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy; it is characterized by limb atrophy, skin scarring, hypoplasia of an extremity, and central nervous system and eye abnormalities
 congestion the accumulation of excessive blood or tissue fluid in a vessel or organ.
 congestive heart failure a condition that occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood around the body; it results in edema, fluid in the lungs, and shortness of breath
 conjugate vaccine a vaccine in which proteins that the immune system can recognize are attached to the outer coat of the disease-causing microbe to promote an immune response; conjugation leads to increased effectiveness (immunogenicity) in infants and antibody booster response to multiple doses of vaccine.
 conjugate vaccine² a vaccine in which proteins that the body can recognize are joined (conjugated) to the outer coat of the disease-causing germ to increase the effectiveness of the vaccine
 conjunctivitis inflammation of the membrane that covers the front of the eyeball and the inside of the eyelid
 constipation abnormally infrequent or delayed bowel movements with hard, dry feces
 constituent one of the parts that make up something
 constricts narrows
 contact a person who has been near enough to an infected person to potentially be exposed to the infectious agent
 contact precautions used for patients known or suspected to be infected or colonized with organisms that can be transmitted by direct contact with the patient or indirect contact with potentially contaminated surfaces in the patient's room; requires gloves and gloves while in the patient care area, and handwashing using an antimicrobial agent
 contact transfer the spread of a microorganism from an infected person to an uninfected person with whom the infected person has direct contact
 contagious easily spread by direct or indirect contact
 contaminated dirty or soiled, especially by microbes (germs) that cause illness
 contamination the act of dirtying or soiling; the state of being dirty or soiled, especially by microbes (germs) that cause disease
 containment the act or condition of taking measures to halt the spread or development of a disease
 contraindicated barred or forbidden
 contraindication a condition that bars or forbids a particular treatment
 contraindication² a condition in a person considered for vaccination that generally increases the chance of a serious adverse reaction
 contraindications conditions in a person considered for vaccination that generally increase the chance of a serious adverse reaction
 control substances antigens which are used in one of two ways to ensure that : 1). a person does not react to everything, by giving an antigen that should not cause a reaction (negative control), or 2). some level of reaction does occur, by giving a substance that should cause a reaction (positive control)
 controls refers to standard references by which other results are compared
 convalescence recovery period after an illness
 convalescent related to the recovery period after an illness
 conversion a change in a TST result from negative to positive within 12 to 24 months
 convulsions seizures
 COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, e.g., emphysema
 cornea the transparent outer covering of the eyeball
 corneal transplants transfers of the transparent outer covering of the eyeball from one person to another
 corneal ulceration a sore on the transparent outer covering of the eyeball
 coronary artery disease a condition in the arteries that carry blood to the heart in which the vessels are narrowed or occluded, usually due to atherosclerosis, causing decreased blood flow to the heart
 corticosteroid a steroid hormone; when given as a medication it is used to decrease inflammation
 corticosteroids steroid hormones; when given as a medication they are used to decrease inflammation
 cortisol a steroidal hormone made in the adrenal cortex that affects protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and decreases inflammation
 cowpox an Orthopoxvirus that causes a pox disease in cows that can be transmitted to humans; was first used by Jenner to inoculate against smallpox when he noticed that milkmaids who had been infected with cowpox did not become infected with smallpox
 CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
 cranial nerve signs abnormalities in the nervous response of the twelve pairs of nerves that arise from the lower part of the brain; these nerves are involved with facial movement, vision, hearing, smelling, breathing, talking, and swallowing
 cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that pass from the brain through openings in the skull to the periphery of the body; involved with facial movement, vision, hearing, smelling, breathing, talking, and swallowing
 crash cart a cart that contains all the emergency equipment and medications needed to follow ACLS protocols and save a person's life
 Crohn’s disease an autoimmune bowel disease that causes inflammation, most often of the ileum (end of the small intestine), resulting in pain, ulcers, and fibrous tissue buildup
 cross-reactivity when two antigens are so similar that either one can cause the same reaction
 croup an inflammatory condition of the larynx and trachea, especially in young children, marked by a cough, hoarseness, and difficulty in breathing
 culture the act of growing live microorganisms in a prepared medium for the purpose of their identification
 cultured a live germ that has been grown in a prepared nutrient medium
 cultures colonies of tubercle bacilli that are grown in a specially prepared nutrient medium
 culturing growing live microorganisms in a prepared medium, e.g., for the purpose of their identification
 cutaneous of, relating to, or affecting the skin
 cutaneous² relating to or affecting the skin
 cut points another term for cut-off point; with re: to TB skin testing, the cut points are measurements of the induration in number of millimeters
 cyanosis blue skin color caused by low levels of oxygen in the blood
 cyanotic blue skin color caused by low levels of oxygen in the blood
 cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder, often caused by infection
 cytokines chemical messengers of the immune system, including inteferon and interleukin; responsible for cell-to-cell messaging
 cytotoxin a substance that has a toxic effect on cells
 dander minute particles or scales that are shed from the feathers, hair, or skin of various animals; they may be the cause of some allergies, especially asthma
 Darier’s disease a skin condition that usually begins in childhood that is characterized by keratotic patches; also known as keratosis follicularis
 dead-end host any host from which a parasite, virus, or bacteria cannot escape to continue its life cycle
 debrided surgical removal of dead or contaminated tissue
 decontamination a process of reducing the number of disease-producing microorganisms and making an an object safe to handle
 DEET N, N- diethylmetatoluamide, an ingredient in most insect repellents applied to the skin
 defecates eliminates feces from the intestines through the anus
 deferred put on hold or postponed
 defibrillators machines that administer a controlled electric shock to the chest or heart to correct a heartbeat that cannot circulate blood
 degrade break down
 degranulate burst and release granules, histamine, and other chemicals
 degranulation process where a mast cell or basophile bursts open and releases granules, histamine, and other chemicals
 dehydration abnormal depletion of body fluids
 delayed anaphylaxis anaphylaxis that does not occur immediately after exposure to an allergen
 delayed hypersensitivity inflammation that develops some time afer antigen recognition
 delayed-type hypersensitivity inflammation that develops some time after antigen recognition
 deleterious harmful, such as causing components to lose effectiveness or potency
 delirium temporary mental confusion and fluctuating consciousness; can be caused by high fever, drugs, shock; may cause confusion, disordered speech, hallucinations
 deltoid site muscle in the upper outer arm
deltoid injection site
 deltoid muscle in the outer portion of the upper arm
 deltoid² muscle in the outer upper arm
deltoid injection site
 demographic risk factors factors about a person, such as age, weight, ethnic background, sex, geographic area of residence, etc., that can increase the risk for being infected with a disease or having more serious disease if infected
 denature to change the molecular structure and characteristics of a molecule by chemical or physical means
 dendritic cell an antigen-presenting cell that helps regulate the immune system
 dengue fever a serious viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes; symptoms include fever, rash, and severe head/back/muscle pain; can progress to shock, bleeding, and death
 dermal refers to the connective tissue layer in the skin between the epidermis and the hypodermis
 dermatology the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the skin
 dermis the connective tissue layer in the skin between the epidermis and the hypodermis
 desensitization the process of treating a person who is allergic to a substance so that he or she no longer reacts to the substance
 desensitize to treat a person who is allergic to a substance so that he or she no longer reacts to the substance
 desensitized successful treatment of a person who is allergic to a substance so that he or she no longer reacts to the substance
 desiccant a substance that absorbs water; used to remove of moisture
 desquamation peeling or sloughing off of the skin
 detoxifying process of removing the effects of a poison or toxin
 diabetes a metabolic disease that results in high blood sugar
 diabetic referring to diabetes, which is a metabolic disease that results in high blood sugar
 dialysis a treatment for kidney disease in which the blood is filtered through a machine to remove waste products
 dialysis formulation a special strength of hepatitis B vaccine that is given to people on hemodialysis
 diaphoresis profuse sweating
 diarrhea abnormally watery bowel movements
 DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation; serious bleeding disorder resulting from the overstimulation of the body's clotting and anticlotting mechanisms in response to injury or stress
 digoxin a drug used as a cardiac stimulant to treat heart failure and other heart conditions; member of the digitalis group of medications
 dilate open and widen
 diluent a diluting agent, e.g., liquid added to reconstitute powdered vaccine
 dilute to make something weaker by adding water or another liquid
 diluted made weaker by the addition of water or another liquid
 dilution reduced concentration of a solution or mixture
 diphtheria an acute, febrile, contagious, disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria, which invade the mucous membranes of the body and produce toxins that cause inflammation, e.g., of the heart and nervous system
 diphtheria² an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low-grade fever, and an adherent membrane of the tonsil(s), pharynx, and/or nose. Diphtheria is a rapidly developing, acute, febrile infection that involves both local and systemic pathology. A local lesion develops in the upper respiratory tract and involves necrotic injury to epithelial cells. As a result of this injury, blood plasma leaks into the area and a fibrin network forms, which is interlaced with rapidly growing C. diphtheriae cells.
 diphtheria toxin used to create some conjugate vaccines
 diphtheria toxoid protein protein used to create some conjugate vaccines
 disciform flat and round, as in the shape of a disk
 discrete distinct, unconnected lesions
 discreetly quietly and privately
 disinfectant an agent (chemical, heat, radiation) that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms in their vegetative state
 disseminated spread over a large area of the body
 disseminated intravascular coagulation also called DIC; serious bleeding disorder resulting from the overstimulation of the body's clotting and anticlotting mechanisms in response to injury or stress
 disseminated herpes simplex spread of the herpes simplex virus, which usually causes cold sores and genital herpes, throughout the body; most common in newborns and in persons who are immunodeficient; characterized by painful skin lesions that usually are vesicular or ulcerative on an erythematous base
 distal extremities lower arms and legs, hands, and feet
 diuretics medications or other substances that increase the flow of urine
 DNA abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of most living organisms
 dormant asleep; inactive; latent, but capable of being activated
 domestic animals pets or animals that are trained to live with humans and be of use to humans
 dopamine medication that is given to increase blood pressure and blood flow to body organs
 dormant asleep; inactive; latent, but capable of being activated
 dorsogluteal site the thick gluteal muscle of the upper outer buttock
dorsogluteal injection site
 Down Syndrome a condition present at birth caused by a genetic defect that results in impaired intellectual functioning and characteristic physical features
 droplets microscopic particles (1 to 5 microns in diameter) produced when a person coughs, sneezes, shouts, or sings
 droplet nuclei microscopic particle (1 to 5 microns in diameter) produced when a person coughs, sneezes, shouts, or sings. The droplets can carry M. tuberculosis that remain in the air by normal air currents in the room.
 drug eruptions skin rashes that occur as a side effect or allergic reaction to taking a medication
 drug-susceptible a disease or infection that can be cured with the drugs usually used to treat it
 dry ice frozen carbon dioxide, which has a temperature of -109.3°F (-78.5ºC)
 DTaP diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine
 DTP diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis vaccine; no longer in use in the United States because of concerns about adverse events following its use
 DT/Td pediatric diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine/tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine for people 7 years of age and older
 duration continuation or persistence over time; how long a vaccine remains effective in the body
 duration² the period of time during which something continues
 dysfunctional not working properly; abnormal or impaired functioning
 dysphagia difficulty swallowing
 dyspnea difficulty breathing; shortness of breath
 dysrhythmia any change in the normal pattern of the heart beat
 dystonias abnormal contractions of muscles characterized by prolonged, repetitive muscle contractions that may cause twisting or jerking movements of the body or a body part
 E. coli a bacterium that normally lives in the intestines; a frequent cause of urinary-tract and wound infections
 ecchymoses bruises that occur from ruptured blood vessel with blood leakage into the subcutaneous tissues
 eczema a noncontagious, inflammatory skin condition; may be chronic or acute; symptoms include redness, itching, and lesions that may ooze serous drainage and become encrusted and scaly
 eczema vaccinatum an adverse event following smallpox vaccination that can occur in people with a history of eczema or atopic dermatitis; vaccinia virus spreads from the vaccine lesion and can cause extensive lesions in disrupted skin areas; can be life-threatening
 edema excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body
 edematous affected by edema, which is the excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body
 efficacy effectiveness; ability to prevent, treat, diagnose, or otherwise manage a disease or other medical condition
 electrolytes substances that conduct electrical impulses when dissolved in solution; found in blood and body tissues
 ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a test used to detect the presence of antibodies against a particular antigen
 EL.U. ELISA units (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which is a measure of viral antigen activity
 EL.U.² abbreviation for ELISA units (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which is a measure of the strength of the vaccine
 ELU ELISA units (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which is a measure of viral antigen activity
 embryo a fertilized egg
 emergency use authorization special permission by the Food and Drug Administration to either give a medication that is not yet approved, or to use an approved medication in a manner not included in the initial approval
 emphysema a condition in which the air sacs in the lungs become stretched out and unable to exchange oxygen properly
 enanthem an eruption on a mucous membrane
 encapsulated contained within a capsule
 encephalitis inflammation of the brain
 encephalopathy any disease of the brain
 end-stage renal disease refers to severe kidney failure; in end-stage renal disease the kidneys cannot clear waste and excess fluids, resulting in the person needing dialysis or a kidney transplant
 endemic present in a community at a low level all or much of the time
 endemicity level a disease is present in the the community all or much of the time
 endocarditis inflammation of the lining of the heart and the heart valves
 endotoxin a poisonous substance that is released when some bacteria are destroyed
 endotracheal located in or passed through the windpipe
 endotracheal tube a tube that is located in or passed through the trachea (windpipe) to help breathing
 enteric referring to the intestines
 enteric-coated an oral medication that is coated to prevent it from dissolving in the stomach
 enteroviruses a group of viruses that infect the intestinal tract and can spread to other areas of the body
 enzyme a protein that speeds up a specific chemical reaction within living cells
 eosinophil a white blood cell that is involved in allergic and parasitic responses
 epidemic a disease that spreads widely in a short period of time
 epidemics diseases that spread widely in a short period of time
 epidemiologically related to the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, spread, and control of disease
 epidemiologist a health professional who works in epidemiology, which is the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, spread, and control of disease
 epidemiology the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, spread, and control of disease
 epidermis the thin outermost layer of the skin
 epiglottitis severe swelling of the throat structures, which make it difficult to swallow and breathe
 epinephrine a medication that relaxes airways and narrows blood vessels; used to treat severe allergic reactions
 epinephrine² a potent stimulant of the sympathetic nervous system that increases heart rate and force of contraction, causes vasoconstriction or vasodilatation, relaxes bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, and causes other metabolic effects; also called adrenaline
 EpiPen self-injection device that administers a dose of intramuscular epinephrine
 epithelial sheet of tissue that covers or lines the external and internal body surfaces; outer layer of skin
 equine refers to horses; horses are sometimes used to create antitoxins for use in humans
 eradicate totally destroy
 eradicated extinct; totally destroyed
 eradication extinction; total destruction
 erythema multiforme an inflammatory skin disease in which reddened skin lesions suddenly appear
 erythema redness of the skin
 erythromycin an antibiotic used in treating a broad range of bacterial infections
 eschar a scab, especially like the scab that forms after a burn
 evidenced-based practice practice that is based on strong research findings
 exanthem a skin eruption that occurs as a symptom of a disease, usually an infectious process
 exempt in relation to vaccination: a person who is excused from receipt of a certain vaccine for a valid reason (e.g., medical or administrative)
 exemption a valid reason to excuse a person from receiving a certain vaccine
 exemptions excuses from receipt of certain vaccines for valid reasons (e.g., medical or administrative)
 expiration date the date after which a product, e.g., a drug or food, is no longer expected to be fresh or effective
 extracts substances pulled out of a larger compound; for example, pulling out specific proteins from an allergen
 extrapulmonary outside the lungs
 fainting a temporary loss of consciousness; also called syncope
 false-negative a test result that is interpreted as negative based on a lack of significant findings even though the disease being tested for is present
 false-positive a test result that is interpreted as positive based on a the presence of significant findings, even though the disease being tested for is not present
 fatal deadly; resulting in death
 fatalities deaths
 fatality death
 fatigue tiredness
 fatty tissue a skin layer between the outer skin (epidemis) and the muscles
 febrile of or related to a fever
 febrile seizures convulsions related to a fever, usually a high fever
 feces bowel movement; stool
 fecal-oral route transmission of microbes from the infected stool of one person into the mouth of another; may occur via fecal contamination of food or water supply, or by hand-to-mouth transmission following inadequate handwashing after touching contaminated items
 fermented fish a food traditionally prepared in Alaska by burying fish in the ground, where it ferments (breaks down) over a period of weeks. After fermentation, it is dug up and frozen until eaten. Fermented fish is only dangerous if enclosed in a plastic or glass container during the fermentation process, because C. botulinum can multiply in airtight containers in which there is little oxygen.
 fetal pertaining to a fetus, which is a developing human being in the uterus from 3 months after conception to birth
 fetal malformation birth defect
 fetus a developing human being in the uterus from 3 months after conception to birth
 fever an elevation in body temperature. In influenza, fever is usually 101 degrees F to 102 degrees F.
 fibrin matrix an insoluble fibrous protein that forms in blood clots
 fibroblasts type of cells that give rise to connective tissue
 fibrotic describing excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ that forms in reaction to injury or inflammation
 field diagnosis testing for and diagnosing diseases in the natural environment in which they occur, rather than in the laboratory
 field study a study carried on outside a laboratory, in the natural environment of the study subject, in which the scientist systematically observes and collects data, but does not change anything in the study environment
 first degree relative includes brothers, sisters, mother, father
 flaccid paralysis loss of muscle tone which causes affected body parts to be limp
 flare an area of flushed (reddened) skin that spreads out from its center
 flavivirus one of a group of RNA viruses that can be transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and ticks; causes various febrile illnesses
 flora the populations of commensal bacteria normally present in the intestine, body openings, and on the skin
 flushing reddening of the skin
 follicular dendritic cell an antigen-presenting cell that resides in the lymph nodes and tissues; helps to regulate the immune system
 fomite inanimate objects contaminated with an organism that may transmit infection to other persons
 food vehicle refers to a food item that is contaminated and that allows bacteria or some other microbe to enter the body, resulting in disease or illness
 foreign not self; not natural to the body; possibly introduced from the outside the body
 formaldehyde a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant, often used to kill bacteria or viruses in the manufacture of vaccines
 formaldehyde² a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant, often used to kill bacteria or viruses when vaccines are made
 formalin an antiseptic and disinfectant, often used to kill bacteria or viruses when vaccines are made
 formulation the specific way in which the vaccine is prepared
 FORSCOM Armed Forces Command
 freeze-dried preserved by first freezing a substance and then placing it in a vacuum to remove moisture before returning it to room temperature
 freeze/thaw cycles a cycle that occurs in frost-free freezers in which heating coils around the freezing coils periodically heat up to thaw the frost from the coils. This cycle also causes items in the freezer to fluctuate in temperature.
 fulminant occurring suddenly and with great intensity
 functional or anatomic asplenia lack of a functioning spleen either due to disease or surgical removal
 fungal of or related to a plant-like organism that can infect the body; examples include the fungi that cause athelete's foot or vaginal yeast infections
 fungi parasites similar to plants that can infect the body; examples include the fungi that cause athelete's foot or vaginal yeast infections
 gall bladder a small sac in the upper right abdomen that stores bile produced by the liver until it is needed to help in the digestion of fats
 gamma globulin the part of the blood that contains antibodies
 gastrectomy surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
 gastric aspirate stomach contents that have been removed from the stomach by use of suction
 gastroenteritis an illness that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines with symptoms of vomiting, abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, and possibly fever
 gastrointestinal relating to the stomach and intestines
 gastrointestinal immunity secretion of immune globulins in the gastrointestinal tract in response to antigens; prevents the attachment of wild poliovirus to the intestinal lining, which inhibits viral replication and traps the virus in mucus, which is eliminated from the bowel
 gastrointestinal tract the digestive system, including the stomach and intestines
 gauge a measure of a needle's diameter: the larger the number, the smaller the diameter
 gelatin a colloidal protein used in the production of some vaccines
 gelatin² a substance used as a stabilizer in the making some vaccines
 gene the fundamental unit of heredity; a piece of genetic material (usually DNA, but sometimes RNA) that carries instructions for the production of a particular protein
 genes the fundamental unit of heredity; a piece of genetic material (usually DNA, but sometimes RNA) that carries instructions for the production of a particular protein
 generalized allergic reaction a physical reaction affecting the whole body to a substance that is harmless to most people; a kind of hypersensitivity
 generalized malignancy cancer that has spread through the body
 generalized tetanus the most common type of tetanus infection: symptoms include descending symptoms of trismus (lockjaw), difficulty swallowing, muscle rigidty, and spasms
 genital areas any of the reproductive organs of men or women
 genital warts small benign warts on or around the genitals and anus
 genitourinary of or related to the genitals and urinary system
 genitourinary tract of or related to the genitals and urinary system
 germinate to grow or sprout
 gestation the period from conception to delivery; pregnancy
 glucagon a medication that increases blood sugar and also blocks the effects of beta-blocker medications
 gluteal referring to the buttocks
 gluteal area buttocks
 glycerinated containing or dissolved in glycerin
 glycerin a type of alcohol used as a solvent, moistening agent, emollient, lubricant, and emulsifying agent; a component added to some vaccines
 glycerine a type of alcohol used as a solvent, moistening agent, emollient, lubricant, and emulsifying agent; a component added to some vaccines
 glycoproteins molecules that consist of a carbohydrate plus a protein
 glycoside a compound that reacts with water to form a sugar and a non-sugar
 graft-versus-host disease a immunologic condition in which transplanted donor cells attack the cells and tissues of a transplant recipient
 gram-positive of, related to, or being a bacterium that retains a violet stain used in Gram?s method (a staining technique used to classify bacteria)
 granules cellular particles
 granulocyte a leukocyte (white blood cell) that releases the contents of its vacuoles when a vacuole fuses with the cell membrane; includes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells
 granulomas small masses of granulation tissue caused by chronic infection
 groin where the top part of each thigh meets the trunk, often considered to include the area between the legs and the external genitals
 growth medium a substance that provides a food environment for the growth of microbes or cells
 guidelines recommendations for patient management that identify a particular management strategy or range of management strategies
 Guillain-Barré a condition, usually temporary, that affects the nerves, causing muscle weakness and paralysis
 Guillain-Barré syndrome a condition, usually temporary, that affects the nerves, causing muscle weakness and paralysis
 H1 blockers a type of antihistamine that blocks H1 receptors; medications in this class are often used to treat allergy symptoms
 H2 blockers a type of antihistamine that blocks H2 receptors; medications in this class are often used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers
 Haemophilus influenzae type b also called Hib; a bacterium that can cause serious invasive illnesses, such as pneumonia and meningitis; most common in children and people who are immune compromised
 Haemophilus influenzae type b² the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease among children in the United States. Before effective vaccines were introduced, one in 200 children developed invasive Hib disease by the age of 5 years. Sixty percent of these children had meningitis; 3%-6% died. Permanent sequelae, ranging from mild hearing loss to mental retardation, affect 20%-30% of all survivors of meningitis. Ninety-five percent of the cases of invasive H. influenzae disease among children less than 5 years of age are caused by organisms with the type b polysaccharide capsule. Approximately two-thirds of all cases of Hib disease affect infants and children less than 15 months of age, a group for which a vaccine has not previously been available.
 hair follicles the small cavities in the skin from which hair develops
 hallucinations false sensory perceptions
 hay fever rhinitis (itchy, runny nose and eyes) usually caused by an allergic reaction to pollen, dust, animal dander, etc.
 HbOC oligosaccharide conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
 healthcare provider a physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant
 helper T cell a kind of lymphocyte that detects foreign proteins and initiates antibody production; starts the immune response
 heart attack sudden interruption of or insufficient supply of blood to the heart, usually from blockage of a coronary artery; also called myocardial infarction
 hematemesis vomiting blood
 hematologic referring to the blood
 hematopoietic stem-cell transplant the infusion of hematopoietic (blood-forming) cells from a donor into a patient who has had chemotherapy to ablate (kill) all of his or her own blood-producing cells; used to treat certain kinds of cancer, as well as certain blood, immune, and enzyme disorders
 hematuria blood in the urine
 hemodialysis use of a machine to remove waste products from the blood stream when the kidneys are not working properly
 hemodynamic status refers to measures of how well the blood is flowing through the body; includes pulse, blood pressure, and oxygenation
 hemoglobinopathies blood disorders caused by a change in the molecular structure of hemoglobin (the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen), e.g., sickle cell anemia
 hemoglobinopathy a group of blood disorders caused by a change in the structure of hemoglobin (the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen); for example, sickle cell anemia
 hemophilia disease in which the blood does not coagulate properly
 hemophilia² a disease in which the blood does not clot properly
 hemoptysis coughing up blood or mucus-containing blood; often indicates lung disease
 hemorrhage uncontrolled or heavy bleeding
 hemorrhagic diseases or conditions that are caused by or result in hemorrhaging (bleeding)
 hepatic referring to the liver
 hepatic tenderness discomfort in the area of the liver
 hepatitis inflammation of the liver
 hepatitis A a viral infection of the liver that is transmitted by the fecal-oral route; causes flu-like symptoms and liver inflammation; less severe illness than hepatitis B, with most patients recovering completely
 hepatitis A² a liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A virus is spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. This type of transmission is called "fecal-oral." For this reason, the virus is more easily spread in areas where there are poor sanitary conditions or where good personal hygiene is not observed. **Most infections result from contact with a household member or sex partner who has hepatitis A. Casual contact, as in the usual office, factory, or school setting, does not spread the virus. Persons with hepatitis A virus infection may not have any signs or symptoms of the disease. Older persons are more likely to have symptoms than children. If symptoms are present, they usually occur abruptly and may include fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Symptoms usually last less than 2 months; a few persons are ill for as long as 6 months. The average incubation period for hepatitis A is 28 days (range: 15-50 days)
 hepatitis B a form of hepatitis that is transmitted through contact with blood or other body fluid that is infected with the virus; can cause serious illness and permanent liver damage
 hepatitis B² a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The virus, which is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death.
 hepatitis B immune globulin also called HBIG; an injection of antibodies given to provide passive immunity to hepatitis B in people who have been exposed to hepatitis B virus
 hepatitis post-exposure prophylaxis administration of hepatitis B vaccine or hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) after exposure to HBV to prevent hepatitis B
 hepatitis postexposure prophylaxis administration of hepatitis B vaccine or hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) after exposure to HBV to prevent hepatitis B
 hepatomegaly enlarged liver
 hepatotoxicity poisonous (toxic) or damaging to the liver
 heptavalent refers to a vaccine or antitoxin containing seven components
 herd immunity the immunity conferred upon a susceptible person by virtue of membership in a group of people who are immune, i.e., the person is protected from infection with a pathogen because he or she does not have contact with people who are susceptible to the pathogen
 herpes zoster also known as shingles; an acute inflammation of the sensory nerve ganglia, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV), that is characterized by pain in the nerve and blister-like skin eruptions
 heterosexual contact sexual contact between a male and a female
 Hib abbreviation for H. influenzae type B, which is a bacteria that can cause serious invasive illness, such a pneumonia and meningitis, most commonly in children and people who are immunocompromised
 high-risk clients people who are more likely to have active tuberculosis disease
 higher rates of hepatitis A Children who live in communities with high rates of hepatitis A (e.g., American Indian reservations; Native Alaskan villages; and selected Hispanic, migrant, and religious communities) should be routinely vaccinated beginning at age 2 years. Additionally, children and adolescents older than 2 years of age who live in areas where rates of hepatitis A are 20 cases or more per 100,000 population should be routinely vaccinated. If they live in areas where the rates of hepatitis A are less than 20 cases per 100,000 population but 10 or more cases per 100,000 population, hepatitis A immunization is also recommended.
map showing the incidence of hepatitis A by state
 Hirschsprung’s disease a congenital bowel defect in which there are no nerve endings in the lower part of the bowel
 histamine a chemical released during an allergic reaction that causes symptoms, such as rash or excess mucus in the respiratory system
 histocompatability antigen proteins on a cell surface that identify it to the immune system as being either "self" or "not self"
 histologic refers to the study or microscopic identification of cells and tissues
 HIV human immunodeficiency virus
 HIV² human immunodeficiency virus; the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
 HIV³ human immunodeficiency virus; a virus that weakens the body's immune system
 HIV+ infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
 hives itchy, raised, red areas on the skin that can result from an allergic reaction
 HIV infection¹ MMR and other measles-containing vaccines are not recommended for HIV-infected people with evidence of severe immunosuppression. In adults with HIV, a total CD4+ T-lymphocytes below 200 per µL or CD4+ T-lymphocytes (as a percentage of total lymphocytes) below 14% is considered to be evidence of severe immunosuppression. MMR is recommended for HIV-infected people who are asymptomatic or whose immunosuppression is not severe.
 Hodgkin’s disease a cancer that affects the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen
 homosexual contact sex between a male and a male, or a female and a female
 hormone a chemical produced by one gland or organ that affects another
 horse serum the clear fluid portion of the blood from a horse that remains after clotting; horse serum contains antibodies, which confer passive immunity if injected into people
 host an animal or plant on which or in which another organism lives
 household contacts family members or others who live close together
 household members family members or others who live close together
 human immunodeficiency virus a retrovirus that causes AIDS by infecting helper T cells of the immune system
 human papillomavirus a very common virus with multiple strains, 30 of which are spread through sexual contact; some strains can cause cervical or genital cancer and genital warts
 human rabies immune globulin also called RIG or HRIG; a sterile solution containing antirabies virus antibodies obtained from the plasma of donors who were recently given rabies vaccine; use for passive immunization against rabies
 humoral immunity protection against disease that involves the binding of antibodies (which are proteins in the blood and lymph made by the immune system) to antigens based on the ability of the antibody to recognize the antigen. After recognizing antigens, antibodies attach to them, and signal T cells to attack. Antibodies also stimulate the release of special chemicals into the blood that help to destroy antigens.
 humoral immunodeficiency a condition in which there is a deficiency of B lymphocytes (the cells that make antibodies) causing the body to be susceptible to recurrent infections
 hygiene practices or habits of being clean that keep one healthy
 Hymenoptera the order of insects that includes bees, hornets, wasps, ants, etc
 hyperbilirubinemia a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a by-product of the breakdown of red blood cells. Too much can cause jaundice, decreased appetite, and flu-like symptoms. Elevations in bilirubin are most often linked to liver disease or a block in the flow of bile.
 hyperendemic having a high, continued incidence of a disease
 hypersalivation excessive production of saliva resulting in drooling
 hypersensitive allergic response an excessive or abnormal sensitivity in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance
 hypersensitivity an excessive or abnormal sensitivity in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance
 hypersensitivity reaction a reaction caused by a heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance
 hypersensitivity skin testing a procedure whereby multiple allergens are injected or applied to small abrasions on the skin to observe which allergens result in redness and swelling (allergic response) and which do not
 hypertension high blood pressure
 hyperthermia very high body temperature
 hyperventilation unusually deep and/or rapid breathing
 hypoallergenic less likely to cause an allergic reaction
 hypotension low blood pressure
 hypotensive having low blood pressure
 hypothalamus a nerve center in the brain that sends chemical messages to the pituitary, which controls numerous functions of the body, including immune system function
 hypoxia low levels of oxygen in the body tissues
 IAW in accordance with
 icteric pertaining to jaundice
 IGIM immune globulin that is administered intramuscularly
 IGIV immune globulin that is administered intravenously
 IgM dot enzyme immunoassay a field test whereby blood or spinal fluid is dotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane. The result is a color change visible to the naked eye. This test requires no specialized skills or equipment.
 IgM the first antibodies made in response to initial exposure to an antigen
 IgA a class of antibodies found chiefly in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts; functions to prevent bacteria and viruses from attaching to epithelial surfaces; secreted in breast milk
 IgD a class of antibodies found in small amount; very little is known about the function of IgD
 IgE a class of antibodies produced in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes; defends against parasites; binds to mast cells and basophils, causing the release of histamine, which, in turn, causes allergic symptoms
 IgE² a specific type of antibody; when an allergen comes in contact with IgE that is specific to that allergen, it causes a reaction in which mast cells or basophils release chemicals, which cause allergy symptoms
 IgG the most abundant antibody; effective against many types of pathogens; triggers action of the complement system; can cross the placenta to the fetus
 illicit illegal; not allowed by the law
 immune not susceptible to becoming ill; protected against disease
 immune² protected from a disease, either from getting a vaccine or from having the disease in the past
 immune competence able to mount a normal immune response, e.g., the ability to develop antibodies in response to antigens
 immune complex groups of molecules (complexes) found in the blood when antigens and antibodies combine; these complexes can accumulate in the tissues and cause health problems, such as vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and system lupus erythematosus
 immune compromised a state in which the body's defense mechanisms are unable to fight off infection
 immune deficiencies states in which the body's immune system is not work well
 immune deficiency a state in which the body has inadequate immune system functioning
 immune deficiency disorder disorder in which the immune system is weakened
 immune deficient a state in which the body's immune system does not function adequately
 immune globulin a sterile solution containing antibodies, generally used for maintenance therapy in certain immune deficiencies or for passive immunization against specific diseases
 immune globulins blood fluids that contain antibodies; used to protect people with certain immune diseases against infections and to give temporary protection to any person against certain diseases, such as hepatitis B and varicella
 immune response also known as an immune reaction; the body's response to an antigen (foreign substance); occurs when lymphocytes identify antigens as foreign to the body and induce production of antibodies and lymphocytes that can react with the antigens and render them harmless
 immune suppressed a state in which the body's immune responses are impaired
 immune suppression suppression of natural immune (protective) response of the body
 immune system the system in the body that helps to prevent and fight off infection; all the cells, tissues, and organs involved in the immune response
 immune system² the body system that helps to prevent and fight off infection
 immune system disorders disorders in which the immune system does not work well
 immune-suppressing something that impairs the natural immune (protective) response of the body
 immune-suppressive medications or other treatments (such as radiation) that impair the natural immune (protective) responses of the body, e.g., high doses of oral corticosteroids; can be used to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
 immunity resistance to disease or infection, usually associated with antibodies or certain cells in the blood that counteract microbes or toxin
 immunity² protection against infection or disease, usually by forming antibodies (proteins that help to fight germs)
 immunization the process of inducing immunity by administering a vaccine, toxoid, antibody, or antitoxin
 immunocompetence able to mount a normal immune response, e.g., the ability to develop antibodies in response to antigens
 immunocompetent able to mount a normal immune response, e.g., the ability to develop antibodies in response to antigens
 immunocompromised a state in which the body's defense mechanisms are unable to fight off infection
 immunodeficiencies states in which the body's immune system is not work well
 immunodeficiency inadequate immune system functioning
 immunodeficient a state in which the body has inadequate immune system functioning
 immunogenicity the ability to induce an immune response; antigenicity
 immunoglobulin a protein that binds to a specific antigen, thereby protecting the body
 immunoglobulins complex protein molecules synthesized by B cells; these molecules can bind to the antigens that induced their synthesis. There are five different classes of antibodies, each of which plays a distinct role in the immune response.
 immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretory immunoglobulin protecting epithelial surfaces, e.g, skin surfaces
 immunoglobulin E (IgE) an antibody that binds to mast cells and basophils, causing the release of histamine, which, in turn, brings on allergic symptoms
 immunoglobulin G (IgG) an antibody that prevents or diminishes allergic responses; the main immunoglobulin of B cells
 immunologic drugs medications, such as vaccines and immune globulins, used to provide either passive or active immunity against specific diseases
 immunologic memory After the immune system is exposed to an antigen, it forms "memory B-cells," which remain in the blood for years. If the antigen enters the body again, the memory B-cells begin to replicate and rapidly produce antibodies to fight off the infection.
 immunologic tolerance acquired failure of the body to make antibodies in response to a given antigen; caused by previous exposure to that antigen
 immunologist a specialist in immunology, which is the study of the immune system
 immunosuppressed a state in which the body's immune responses are impaired
 immunosuppression suppression of natural immune (protective) response of the body
 immunosuppressive drugs medications that impair the natural immune (protective) responses of the body, e.g., high doses of oral corticosteroids; can be used to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
 immunosuppressive therapy medications or other treatments (such as radiation) that impair the natural immune (protective) responses of the body, e.g., high doses of oral corticosteroids; can be used to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
 immunotherapy immunization against allergy through desensitization
 impermeable something that does not allow liquids or other substances to pass or diffuse through
 impetigo a contagious bacterial skin infection that usually affects the face; characteristics include superficial pustules and the formation of thick, yellow crusts
 impotent lacking strength
 in vitro testing refers to allergy testing that uses a blood sample to analyze for specific IgE antibodies
 inactivated dead and unable to replicate
 inactivated² dead or not able to grow and multiply (replicate) in the body
 inadvertent accidental
 inactivated vaccine an inactivated vaccine is composed of killed bacteria or isolated bacterial or viral components that will induce active immunity. Inactivated vaccine is dead and not able to replicate in the body
 inactivated vaccine² vaccine made from killed bacteria or pieces of bacteria or viruses, which produce immunity; inactivated vaccine is dead and not able to grow and multiply (replicate) in the body
 inanimate not alive or living
 inactivated vaccines vaccines made from killed bacteria or pieces of bacteria or viruses, which produce immunity; inactivated vaccine is dead and not able to grow and multiply (replicate) in the body
 inanimate not alive or living
 incidence the number of new cases over a period of time, which is often divided by the size of a group of people, e.g., 2 out of 1000 births per year
 inconsolable unable to be comforted
 incubated keeping cells or microorganisms at a controlled temperature so that they stay alive and multiply
 incubation period the length of time between entry of a microbe (germ) into the body and the beginning of disease symptoms
 indications reasons that it is necessary or a good idea to give a vaccine
 indications² reasons why a vaccine should be given
 indigenous originating in, growing, or existing naturally within an environment
 indurated hardening of tissue; usually associated with inflammation
 induration the hardening of tissue; usually associated with inflammation
 indwelling catheter a hollow tube that is placed in and remains in the body, e.g., a urinary catheter
 infect invade or contaminate by a microbe
 infected invaded or contaminated by a microbe
 infection habitation of germs within a part of the body. Infection is usually synonymous with disease, but not always. For example, a person can be infected with poliovirus, but may not develop any symptoms of disease.
 infections habitation of germs within a part of the body. Infection is usually synonymous with disease, but not always. For example, a person can be infected with poliovirus, but may not develop any symptoms of disease.
 infectious likely to spread an illness
 infective capable of causing an infection; synonymous with infectious
 infiltrated injected a liquid into tissue so that the liquid permeates the cells in the tissue
 inflammation the body's reaction to injury, irritation, or infection characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, and/or pain; associated with the buildup of immune cells and substances around the injury or infection
 inflammatory bowel disease autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the intestinal lining; includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
 inflammatory process the body's reaction to injury, irritation, or infection characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, and/or pain; associated with the buildup of immune cells and substances around the injury or infection
 influenza a highly infectious virus; also the name of a contagious viral illness that causes fever, myalgia, cough, sore throat, headache; can result in complications of pneumonia, Reye syndrome, myocarditis, and death
 influenza² also known as the flu: a contagious disease that is caused by the influenza virus. It attacks the respiratory tract in humans (nose, throat, and lungs). The flu is different from a cold. Influenza usually comes on suddenly and may include these symptoms: fever, headache, tiredness (can be extreme), dry cough, sore throat, nasal congestion and body aches. These symptoms are usually referred to as "flu-like symptoms."
 influenza-like symptoms influenza-like symptoms include fever, body aches, cough, sore throat, and headache
 informed consent a person's legal consent to a medical procedure, such as a vaccination, that is made after the person has been fully informed about the procedure, including its benefits, risks, and alternatives
 infusion set tubing and supplies needed to administer intravenous fluids
 ingested taken in by mouth; swallowed
 inhalation the act of drawing air into the lungs
 inhaler a device used to deliver aerosolized medications to the lungs
 innate immune system the body's first line of defense against infection; normally present at birth; limits pathogen growth and transmits information to the adaptive immune system; not antigen-specific; starts work immediately or within several hours after exposure to an antigen
 innate immunity inborn protection against disease; evolutionary primitive defenses, primarily phagocytosis; immunity not affected by prior exposure to infectious agents
 inoculated having had an antigenic substance or vaccine introduced into the body
 inoculation introduction of an antigenic substance or vaccine into the body
 insertion of the deltoid the point at which the deltoid muscle is inserted into the middle of the shaft of the humerus
 insomnia an inability to sleep
 interferon a chemical (cytokine) produced by virus-infected cells that contributes to the cells' death by apoptosis; can be genetically engineered to create medications that impair the growth and replication of viruses and cancer cells
 interferon alfa-2b a protein produced by cells in response to a viral infection, such as hepatitis B, that helps to fight the infection. The protein is produced in medication amounts by inserting the interferon protein gene into the DNA of E. coli bacteria.
 interleukin one of several cytokines that affect the immune system
 insulin a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates the level of blood sugar
 intermittent occurring now and then; a period when the disease is quiet in between periods when the disease is active
 international unit a measurement of biological activity
 interval the amount of time between one dose of vaccine and the next dose of vaccine
 intestinal refers to the intestine, which includes the small and large bowel
 intestinal bypass a surgical procedure in which a significant section of the small intestine is bypassed to prevent absorption of food
 intestines the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the anus; includes the small intestines and the large intestines
 intracranial pressure the pressure within the skull; if the intracranial pressure increases too much, brain cells do not receive enough oxygen and the entire brain is moved downward out of the skull causing death
 intradermal within or between the layers of the skin
 intradermally into the layers of the skin
 intramuscular into a muscle
 intramuscularly into the muscle
 intranasal into the nose
 intranasal flu vaccine live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV); this is a weakened live vaccine used to help prevent influenza
 intranasally into the nose
 intraosseous into the center of the bone
 intrauterine occurring or located within the uterus
 intravenous into a vein
 intravenously into a vein
 intubation insertion of a tube into the lungs through the nose or mouth to aid breathing
 intussusception folding of one segment of the intestine into another segment of the intestine
 invasive tending to spread in the body
 investigational new drug (IND) a drug or biological product subject to the FDA regulations at 21 CFR Part 312 including a drug not approved or a biological product not licensed by the FDA and a drug unapproved for its applied use
 ischemia decreased blood supply to a body organ or tissues caused by constricted or obstructed blood vessels
 ITS Immunization Tracking System
 IU international unit; a measurement of biological activity
 IV intravenous, which means into a vein
 IV fluid fluids administered into a vein
 Japanese encephalitis a viral infection most common in Asia; transmitted by mosquitoes; symptoms include fever and headache (with mild illness); more severe infection marked by quick onset, headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, paralysis, coma; fatality rate is 0.3% to 60%
 Japanese encephalitis² a disease that is spread to humans by infected mosquitoes in Asia. It is one of a group of mosquito-borne virus diseases that can affect the central nervous system and cause severe complications and even death. It is caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, an arbovirus. Arbovirus is short for arthropod-borne virus. Arboviruses are a large group of viruses that are spread by certain invertebrate animals (arthropods), most commonly blood-sucking insects. Like most arboviruses, Japanese encephalitis is spread by infected mosquitoes.
 jaundice yellow coloring of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes
 jejunoileal bypass a surgical procedure in which the upper jejunum of the small intestine is joined to the terminal ileum; used to treat morbid obesity
 JEV Japanese encephalitis virus
 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis a chronic disease affecting children and young adults in which the joints become stiff and inflamed, resulting in weakness, deformity, and loss of mobility
 Kawasaki disease a childhood disease causing fever, rash, skin peeling, swollen lymph nodes, and possibly complications of the heart and brain
 keratitis inflammation of the cornea
 kg kilogram; a measure of weight
 kidney an organ located in the middle of the back that filters waste out of the body in urine; helps to maintain the body's fluid and electrolyte balance, and proper acid-base concentration
 kidney² an organ that filters waste out of the body in urine
 killer T cells also called cytotoxic T cells; differentiated (trained) T cells that recognize specific antigens on the surface of a target cell, e.g, a body cell infected with virus; the killer T cell binds to the target cell and kills its; also defends against cancer cells
 Koplik’s spots small red spots with bluish-white centers found on the inside of the mouth of persons with measles
 L-histidine a protein sometimes used in the manufacture of vaccines
 L/min liters per minute
 lactose sugar found in milk that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 LAIV live attenuated influenza vaccine; this is a weakened live vaccine used to help prevent influenza
 lamivudine an antiviral medication
 lapsed refers to cases where a vaccine schedule is started but not completed
 laryngeal related to the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea that includes the vocal cords
 laryngoscopes medical instruments that consist of a short metal or plastic tube fitted with a tiny light bulb; used when examining the larynx and to place an airway when a person cannot breathe
 latent existing in a dormant or hidden form, e.g., a microbe that lives or develops in a host without producing visible symptoms of disease
 latex the milky sap of a rubber tree that is used to make rubber products, such as rubber stoppers for vaccine vials; some people have serious allergic (anaphylactic) reactions when exposed to even small amounts of latex
 latex agglutination test a test used to detect specific polysaccharide antigens
 leptospirosis a bacterial disease that can affect humans and animals; symptoms can include high fever, severe headache, muscle aches, vomiting, jaundice; untreated it can cause renal, liver, brain, lung, and central nervous system damage
 lesion a localized open, infected, and/or diseased area of the skin
 lesions localized open, infected, and/or diseased area of the skin
 lethal deadly
 lethargy a feeling of abnormal tiredness
 leukemia a blood cancer in which the number of white blood cells increases excessively
 leukocyte any white blood cell
 leukocytes white blood cells
 leukocytoblastic vasculitis a condition in which the blood or lymph vessels become inflame
 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer cell wall of some bacteria; often shed, which allows immune cells to detect an infection
 live attenuated a vaccine that has not been inactivated, but whose ability to cause disease has been weakened
 live attenuated vaccine a vaccine whose biological activity has not been inactivated, but whose ability to cause disease has been weakened
 live vaccine a type of vaccine containing a "living" microbe that can produce immunity, usually without causing illness
 live, oral vaccine a type of vaccine administered by mouth that contains a "living" microbe that can produce immunity, usually without causing illness
 live-virus a type of vaccine that contains a "living" virus that is able to produce immunity, usually without causing illness
 live-virus vaccine a type of vaccine containing a "living" microbe that can produce immunity, usually without causing illness
 liver a vital organ in the right upper abdomen with many functions, including storing food, removing toxic substances from the body, producing bile, and forming certain blood proteins
 liver² an important organ with many functions, including storing food, removing toxic substances from the body, producing bile, and forming certain blood proteins
 liver enzymes proteins that the liver makes and uses for normal body activities; elevated levels indicate damage or inflammation of the liver
 livestock animals, such as horses, cattle, swine, goat, and sheep, that are raised on farms
 localized limited to a specific body part or area
 local reaction redness, swelling, or pain at the injection site
 local reaction² a minor reaction that mainly consists of redness, swelling, and pain; occurs where an allergen comes into contact with the body; for example, a bee sting that causes only local swelling and no other systemic symptoms
 local reactions redness, swelling, or pain at the injection site
 loss of consciousness when a person goes from being alert, awake, and responsive to being unable to respond
 lot number vaccines are made in large amounts called "lots." There may be millions of vaccine doses in a lot. The doses are put into vials or syringes by the manufacturer. The lot number is a string of numbers and letters on a box of vaccine that shows from which lot the vaccine doses in that box came.
 lots vaccines and medications are made in large amounts called "lots." There may be millions of doses in a lot. The doses are put into vials or syringes by the manufacturer.
 low grade fever fever less than 37.7 degree C
 low-grade fever fever less than 37.7 degree C
 lowered consciousness not fully awake and alert, may be drowsy with limited response
 lupus an immune disease that causes the body to attack its own cells; causes fevers, joint pain, anemia, rashes, and involvement of body organs, such as the spleen, kidneys, and central nervous system
 lupus erythematosus an inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect the whole body, causing fevers, joint pain, anemia, rashes, and involvement of body organs, such as the spleen, kidneys, and central nervous system
 lymph a clear, colorless fluid that fills the tissue spaces of the body and carries immune cells
 lymph nodes small round nodes in the lymphatic system that produce white blood cells and filter harmful substances out of the body. Infection, such as mumps, causes the lymph nodes to enlarge.
 lymph nodes² small round nodes in the lymphatic system that produce white blood cells and filter harmful substances out of the body. Infection, such as diphtheria, causes the lymph nodes to enlarge.
 lymph nodes³ glands in the neck, groin, armpits, and abdomen that develop and store white blood cells, and that filter out dead cells, antigens, and other material to present to lymphocytes
 lymph system a major component of the immune system; a circulatory system composed of a network of organs, lymph nodes, ducts, and vessels that produces and transports lymph from tissues to the bloodstream
 lymphatic system a major component of the immune system; a circulatory system composed of a network of organs, lymph nodes, ducts, and vessels that produces and transports lymph from tissues to the bloodstream
 lymph tissues specialized tissues that carry out certain lymph node functions, but which are structurally different from lymph nodes; examples include tonsils, adenoids, and Peyer's patches
 lymph vessels the channels through which lymph circulates; the lymphatic channels collect fluid (lymph) that has leaked from the blood into the tissues and return the lymph to the blood stream
 lymphadenitis inflammation of one or more lymph nodes
 lymphangitis inflammation of the lymph vessels
 lymphocyte a type of WBC that circulates in the blood and lymph, e.g., a T cell or a B cell; lymphocytes are antigen-specific, which enables them to recognize specific pathogens
 lymphocytopenia a decrease in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell)
 lymphoma cancer of the lymph tissue
 lyophilization the process of freeze-drying
 lyophilized freeze-dried
 macerate to soften as a result of continual exposure to bodily fluids or moisture
 maceration softening as a result of continual exposure to bodily fluids or moisture
 macrophage a large white blood cell that consumes invading pathogens and presents foreign antigens on its membrane; derived from a monocyte
 macrophages large white blood cells that consume invading pathogens and present foreign antigens on their membranes
 macules flat, discolored patches of skin
 maculopapular containing both macules (a flat, discolored patch of skin) and papules (small, solid inflammatory elevations of the skin)
 maintenance concentration a 1:1 solution that contains individual or mixtures of individual manufacturer?s allergen extracts at the highest concentration that will be needed
 maintenance dose also called the effective therapeutic dose; the dose that provides therapeutic efficacy without significant adverse local or systemic reactions
 maintenance goal the dose that is projected to be the effective dose
 maintenance phase begins when the effective therapeutic dose is reached; injection intervals are increased, and the dose is generally the same with each injection; intervals can range from every 2 weeks to every 8 weeks depending on the allergen
 MAJCOM major command
 malabsorption inadequate absorption of nutrients from digested food
 malabsorption syndrome a nutritional syndrome caused by any of various disorders in which nutrients are not effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
 malaise a general feeling of being unwell
 malaria a serious parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes that causes fever, flu-like illness, muscle aches, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, and jaundice
 malignancies cancers; abnormal tissue that tends to spread and threaten life
 malignancy cancer; abnormal tissue that tends to spread and threaten life
 malignant highly injurious, virulent, and threatening to life
 malignant conditions, such as blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, leukemia, or other cancers affecting the bone marrow or lymphatic system In certain blood dyscrasias (imbalance in components of the blood), leukemia (a form of blood cancer), and lymphoma (cancer of the lymph tissues), there is excessive production of abnormal white blood cells, which are unable to fight off infections. This places the person at greater risk of complications after vaccination with a live virus vaccine, such as varicella.
 mandatory required by law
 mandatory² something that MUST be done
 mannitol a sugar-based substance given as a diuretic to help reduce fluid pressure in the brain
 mannitol² a sugar-based substance used in some vaccines
 mannose a carbohydrate present on many bacteria; not found in body cells, so cells with mannose are seen as invaders by the immune system
 mass vaccination giving a vaccine to a large number of people at one time
 massage rub
 mast cell a cell found in tissues near blood vessels that releases histamine when bound to IgE during an allergic response
 mast cells stationary cells that bind IgE; when a mast cell that is bound to IgE comes in contact with a specific antigen, the mast cell may release a variety of substances, including histamine, that cause allergic symptoms
 mastitis inflammation of the breast, which occurs in about 31% of women with mumps
 maternal antibodies antibodies that are transferred across the placenta from the mother to the fetus before birth
 mcg microgram; equivalent to one thousandths of a milligram
 MCV4 a meningococcal conjugate vaccine that protects against four types of meningococcal disease (A, C, Y, W-135); does not protect against type B
 measles also known as "rubeola;" an acute viral infection that causes fever, nasal discharge, redness of the eyes, and a rash; complications can include pneumonia, encephalitis, and death
 measles² also called rubeola; a viral infection best known for its typical skin rash. It is, however, primarily a respiratory infection. The first symptoms are irritability, runny nose, eyes that are red and sensitive to light, hacking cough, and a fever as high as 105 degrees Fahrenheit (40.6 degrees Celsius). **Fever peaks with the appearance of the rash, which typically begins on the forehead, then spreads downward over the face, neck, and body. The child is particularly ill-looking during the first days of the rash. It usually takes about 3 days for the rash to make its way down to the feet. Once the rash appears on the legs and feet, symptoms usually subside within 2 days. **The rash itself looks like large flat red to brown blotches that often flow into one another to completely cover the skin, especially on the face and shoulders. The rash fades in the same order that it appeared, forehead first and feet last. The total time for the rash, from beginning to end, head to toe, is usually about 6 days. As the rash disappears, the healing skin may look brown temporarily, before it sheds in a finely textured peel.
 measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) an antibody that is produced by the body in response to measles infection and that usually wanes over six months; its presence indicates recent measles infection
 mechanical ventilation use of a mechanical device or machine to inflate and deflate the lungs
 median the middle number in a set of numbers when the numbers are arranged in order, e.g., the number 6 is the median of this set of number: 4, 8, 12, 18, 22
 mediastinum the space in the chest between the lungs that contains the heart and thoracic viscera (except the lungs)
 MEDPROS abbreviation for Medical Protection System
 memory B cells B cells that have been previously exposed to an antigen, retain a memory of that antigen, and are primed to produce antibody if re-exposure to that antigen occurs again in the future
 meninges the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
 meningitis inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
 meningococcal of or related to, derived from, or caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which are a type of meningococcal bacteria that cause cerebrospinal meningitis
 meningococcal² related to the bacteria that cause meningitis. Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ. Viral meningitis is generally less severe and resolves without specific treatment, while bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disability. For bacterial meningitis, it is also important to know which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis because antibiotics can prevent some types from spreading and infecting other people. Before the 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, but new vaccines being given to all children as part of their routine immunizations have reduced the occurrence of invasive disease due to H. influenzae. Today, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the leading causes of bacterial meningitis.
 meningococcal vaccine a vaccine that protects against a bacterium (Neisseria meningitidis) that causes acute, potentially severe illnesses, most commonly meningitis (infection of the membrane surrounding the brain) and sepsis (infection of the blood and tissues).
 meningococcemia infection of the blood with N. meningitidis
 meningoencephalitis inflammation of the brain and the meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
 Meckel’s diverticulum a small bulge in the small intestine present at birth
 mental retardation below average intelligence (IQ below 70) that is present from birth or infancy and results in developmental delays, learning problems, and problems with social adjustment
 metabolic related to how the body absorbs food and processes it into energy
 metabolic disease diseases related to how the body absorbs food and processes it into energy, e.g., diabetes mellitus and inborn errors in metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
 mg milligram
 MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) any of several types of antigen-binding sites on the membrane of a cell; markers for the body's own cells
 microbe a microorganism; a living thing too small to be seen without a microscope; bacteria, viruses, and fungi are all microbes
 microbiology the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on other organisms
 microcephaly small head; usually reflects an underlying reduction in the size of the brain
 microorganism a microbe; a living thing too small to be seen without a microscope
 miscarriage the end of a pregnancy due to defects of the fetus or womb before the fetus can survive outside the womb
 mIU/mL how results are quantified when a test called enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is used to check for anti-HBs
 mL milliliter
 mm millimeter
 MMR refers to combined measles, mumps, rubella vaccine
 monkeypox a orthopoxvirus disease that resembles smallpox; transmitted by the bites or blood of certain animals (e.g., primates), with most cases occurring in Africa; smallpox vaccine also protects against monkeypox
 molecular of or related to a molecule, which is two or more atoms that form the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance
 monoclonal antibodies antibodies made from a single cell or clones of that cell, specific to an antigen
 monocyte a WBC that travels through the bloodstream to an area of infection, then migrates into the tissue where it turns into a pathogen-eating macrophage (phagocyte)
 monovalent refers to a vaccine containing a single component (e.g., one virus strain)
 moribund approaching or near death
 mortality rate the fraction of people who die from a particular cause
 motor neuron a nerve cell that carries impulses from the central nervous system to muscles, glands, or other tissues
 MPSV4 a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine that protects against four types of meningococcal disease (A, C, Y, W-135); does not protect against type B
 MTF medical treatement facility
 MTFs medical treatement facilities
 mucosa also called mucous membranes; the membranes that line the passageways and tracts to the outside of the body, and which secrete mucus
 mucous membrane the lining of openings such as the nose, mouth, digestive tract, urinary tract, and eye
 mucous membranes the linings of openings such as the nose, mouth, digestive tract, urinary tract, and eye
 mucus slippery, sticky fluid secreted by glands in the mucous membranes; acts as a lubricant and protectant
 multi-dose vaccine a vaccine that, in order to cause an immune response, must be given in several doses separated over a period of time
 multidose containing more than one dose
 multidose vaccine a vaccine that, in order to cause an immune response, must be given in several doses separated over a period of time
 multi-drug resistant disease or infection that is not effectively treated by many commonly effective drugs
 multiple myeloma a bone marrow disease
 multiple organ system failure refers to severe disease in which several major organs stop working; can result in death
 multiple sclerosis (MS) a disease caused by an autoimmune attack on the myelin sheath that covers nerve cells; produces muscle and sensory nerve impairment
 mumps an acute viral infection that results in fever and swelling of the parotid glands; also can cause swelling of the testicles, meningoencephalitis, pancreatitis, and heart and thyroid involvement
 mumps² an acute viral illness. Although the parotitis and orchitis were described by Hippocrates in the 5th century B.C., until relatively recently mumps was viewed primarily as an illness that affected armies during times of mobilization. In 1934, Johnson and Goodpasture showed that mumps could be transmitted from infected patients to rhesus monkeys and demonstrated that mumps was caused by a filtrable agent present in saliva. This agent was later shown to be a virus. Mumps was a frequent cause of outbreaks among military personnel in the prevaccine era. During World War I, only influenza and gonorrhea were more common causes of hospitalization among soldiers. Outbreaks of mumps have been reported among military personnel as recently as 1986. ** Mumps virus is a paramyxovirus in the same group as parainfluenza and Newcastle disease virus. Parainfluenza and Newcastle disease viruses produce antibodies that cross-react with mumps virus. The virus has a single-stranded RNA genome. The virus can be isolated or propagated in cultures of various human and monkey tissues and in embryonated eggs. It has been recovered from the saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, blood, milk, and infected tissues of patients with mumps. Mumps virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, formalin, ether, chloroform, and ultraviolet light.
 myalgia muscle pains; in influenza, these muscle pains mainly affect the back muscles
 myalgia2 muscle pains
 myasthenia gravis a disease that causes fatigue and generalized weakness of the skeletal muscles, especially those of the face, neck, arms, and legs
 mycobacteria various slender, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium, which includes the bacteria that cause tuberculosis
 mycobacteriology the study of various slender, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium, which includes the bacteria that cause tuberculosis
 mycoplasma describes a group of parasitic, pathogenic microorganisms that can cause nonbacterial pneumonia
 myocarditis inflammation of the walls of the heart
 myopericarditis a heart condition that results from a combination of myocarditis, which is inflammation of the walls of the heart, and pericarditis, which is inflammation of the membrane that covers the heart
 N. meningitidis the bacterium that causes cerebrospinal meningitis
 N. meningitidis² the germ (bacterium) that causes meningitis
 nasal cannula tubing that delivers oxygen into the nose
 nasogastric suctioning removal of stomach contents by a suction tube that enters the stomach by way of the nose
 nasopharyngeal related to or coming from the back of the nose and throat
 nasopharynx the area in the back of the nose and throat
 natural killer cells (NK cells) cells that attack infected body cells and potential cancer by making holes in the membrane of the target cell
 natural infection infection that occurs after normal exposure to a microorganism, rather than exposure through vaccination; For example, developing chickenpox after exposure to varicella virus exhaled by an infected person
 nausea a feeling as if one is going to vomit
 nebulizer a device used to convert a liquid into an extremely fine mist; used for delivering medication to the deep part of the respiratory tract
 necrotic affected or characterized by death of cells or tissues in a localized area of the body
 needle-stick precautions measures taken to prevent or manage the consequences of percutaneous injuries caused by contaminated needles
 negative pressure a term used to describe the relative air pressure difference between two areas of a health care facility; air (and germs) flow from the higher pressure area into the lower pressure area - away from uninfected people
 neomycin an antibiotic that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 neonatal of or related to the newborn infant
 nephritis inflammation of the kidneys
 nephrotic syndrome an abnormal kidney condition that results in loss of protein in the urine
 nerve impulses the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
 nervous system the brain and spinal cord
 neuritis inflammation of a nerve, marked by pain, numbness, tingling, paralysis, or weakness
 neurologic having to do with the nerves or the nervous system
 neurological having to do with the nervous system
 neurological reaction a reaction involving the nervous system, such as paralysis, encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome
 neuromuscular relating to or affecting both nerve and muscle tissue
 neuron a nerve cell that carries impulses from the central nervous system to muscles, glands, or other tissues
 neuroparalytic paralysis of nerves caused by disease, injury, or the effects of drugs
 neurotropic tending to attack the nervous system
 neutrophil a phagocytic white blood cell that releases toxic chemicals, which kill everything in the area, including pathogens and the neutrophil itself
 newborns infants from birth to one month of age
 nodule a small, rounded mass
 non-bacteremic not caused by bacteria in the bloodstream
 noncommunicable not able to be transmitted from one person to another
 noncompliance an unwillingness to follow a prescribed course of medical treatment
 non-dominant arm the arm that is least useful to the person, e.g., in a right-handed person, the left arm is the non-dominant arm; can be determined by asking the person "Are you right-handed or left-handed?"
 nonocclusive dressing a dressing that is permeable to air and moisture, and that does not seal off the wound, e.g., a loose, porous guaze dressing
 nonparalytic not causing paralysis
 non-responders people who fail to respond to the vaccine as expected, i.e., they do not develop the expected immunity
 non-specific allergies allergy symptoms not caused by a specific, known allergen (substance that produces an allergic response)
 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) medications that are used to treat inflammation, pain, and fever; some can be purchased over-the-counter (e.g., Motrin, Advil) and others require a prescription
 non-toxigenic something that does not produce toxins (poisons)
 normal saline solution that contains 0.9% weight/volume of sodium chloride (NaCl) in water; frequently used as an intravenous fluid
 nosocomial an infection that occurs during hospitalization that is unrelated to the patient's primary condition
 novel new and different
 nuchal rigidity stiffness of the neck
 obese very overweight
 obstruction blockage
 ocular ocular exposure is exposure into the eye
 off-label refers to use of an approved, licensed medication for an indication that has not been approved
 OMP outer membrane protein
 opiates medication that has a sedative and pain-relieving effect, such as morphine
 oncology the branch of medicine that concerns itself with tumors and cancer
 one-way valves structures that open to allow fluid to flow through in one direction and then close to prevent backflow of the fluid
 oophoritis inflammation of the ovaries, which occurs in 5% of women with mumps
 opalescent resembling an opal gemstone; having a milky iridescence
 opaque not penetrable by light, e.g., you cannot see through an opaque solution; an opaque liquid may appear milky
 ophthalmologist a physician who specializes in the treatment of eye diseases
 opportunistic infection an infection caused by a germ that normally does not cause disease, but which is able to cause disease when the immune system is deficient and unable to fight off infections
 optic neuritis inflammation of the optic nerve of the eye
 oral by mouth
 orally by mouth
 oral-oral transmission of microbes from the mouth of one person to the mouth of another person, e.g., by kissing
 orchitis inflammation of one or both testicles, marked by pain and swelling
 oropharyngeal pertaining to the part of the pharynx that is located behind the mouth and tongue
 orthopedic pertaining to the skeletal and muscular system
 Orthopoxvirus a genus of virus which contains 11 distinct but closely related species showing extensive serological cross-reactivity; contain large amounts of DNA and replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells; includes variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox, and mousepox
 osteomyelitis infection in the bone and bone marrow
 ostomies surgical construction of an artificial opening through which the body can excrete waste, e.g., a colostomy, an ileostomy, a urostomy
 otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
 outbreak a sudden increase in the number of cases of an illness
 outbreaks sudden increase in the number of cases of an illness
 over-the-counter medications that you can buy at the drugstore without a healthcare provider prescription
 over-the-counter medications medications that you can buy at the drugstore without a healthcare provider prescription
 oxygen saturation amount of oxygen in the arterial blood
 packed red blood cells a unit of whole blood from which most of the plasma has been removed, leaving a higher percentage of red blood cells; used in the treatment of anemia
 palate roof of the mouth
 pallor paleness of the skin
 pancreas a gland in the abdomen that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream, and pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine
 pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas; which can affect blood sugar regulation
 pandemic an epidemic occuring over a very large area
 Pap test a procedure in which a healthcare provider scrapes cells from the cervix or vagina to check for cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, or abnormal changes that could lead to cancer
 papular consisting of or characterized by small, solid elevations of the skin that do not contain pus
 papule a small, solid elevation of the skin that does not contain pus
 paralysis loss of voluntary movement of a body part caused by nerve damage or destruction
 paralysis² the inability to move a body part because of nerve damage, muscle damage, or both
 paralytic refers to loss of voluntary movement of a body part caused by nerve damage or destruction
 parasite an organism that lives in or on another living thing (a host) and extracts its energy and nutrition from the host
 parasitic of or related to organisms that derive nourishment and protection from a host organism, but offer no benefit to the host in return and can be harmful; examples include lice, intestinal worms, and microscopic organisms, such as protozoa that cause amebic dysentery
 parenteral introduced into the body by a way other than the digestive tract; usually refers to injections, e.g., intramuscular or intravenous
 parenterally by way of the parenteral route; injected, e.g., intramuscularly or intravenously
 paresthesia abnormal skin sensations, such as burning, itching, or tingling that have no apparent physical cause
 parotitis inflammation of the salivary glands, which are located below and in front of the ear, resulting in swelling and tenderness
 paroxysmal refers to a sudden attack or fit
 passive immunity a condition in which the body receives natural or man-made antibodies from another source to fight off an infection
 passive immunization transient immunization produced by the introduction into the body of preformed antibodies (the gammaglobulin fraction derived from the serum of animals or man rendered immune to a particular disease or poison
 pathogen any microorganism (germ) that causes disease
 pathogenic capable of causing disease
 pathogens any microorganisms (germs) that causes disease
 PCV7 an abbreviation for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which protects against seven types of pneumococcal bacteria, especially those that infect young children
 peak expiratory flow rate a measure of how fast air can be exhaled from the lungs; often used to assess asthma
 pediatrician a physician who specializes in the care of infants, children, and adolescents
 pelvic inflammatory disease inflammation caused by infection of the female genital tract by a microorganisms, most commonly chlamydia and gonococci; characterized by severe abdominal pain, high fever, vaginal discharge, and tissue damage; can result in sterility.
 permethrin an insect repellant licensed for use on clothing
 Pen-VK type of antibiotic that contains penicillin
 penicillin a commonly used antibiotic
 pentavalent refers to a vaccine or antitoxin containing five components
 percutaneous through or by way of the skin, including needlesticks, bites, and breaking of the skin with sharp objects
 perforation a penetration or hole through a body part
 pericarditis inflammation of the membrane the covers the heart
 peripheral neuropathy disease or dysfunction in the peripheral nerves (nerves outside the spinal cord); symptoms include numbness, burning, pain, and loss of reflexes
 peripheral nerves the network of nerves extending outward from the brain and spinal cord
 periorbital or or related to the tissues surrounding the eye and the lining of the orbit (eye socket)
 permucosal through or by way of a mucous membrane
 perpendicular at a right angle to the horizontal or the vertical
 pertussis also called whooping cough; an infectious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis bacteria; causes violent, spasmodic coughing
 pertussis² also called whooping cough; an infectious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis bacteria; causes violent, spasmodic coughing; spread through the respiratory route; can cause servere disease in adolescents and adults; numerous outbreaks among adolescents and adults in recent years caused by waning immunity
 pertussis³ also called whooping cough; caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. B. pertussis is a very small Gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus that appears singly or in pairs. Its metabolism is respiratory, never fermentative; and taxonomically Bordetella is placed among the "Gram-negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci" in Bergey's Manual. Bordetella is not assigned to any family. The bacteria are nutritionally fastidious and are usually cultivated on rich media supplemented with blood. They can be grown in synthetic medium, however, which contains buffer, salts, an amino acid energy source, and growth factors such as nicotinamide, for which there is a strict requirement. Even on blood agar, the organism grows slowly and requires 3-6 days to form pinpoint colonies. **Bordetella pertussis colonizes the cilia of the mammalian respiratory epithelium. Generally, it is thought that B. pertussis does not invade the tissues, but some recent work has shown the bacterium sequestered in alveolar macrophages. The bacterium is a pathogen for humans and possibly for higher primates, and no other reservoir is known. Whooping cough is a relatively mild disease in adults but has a significant mortality rate in infants. Until immunization was introduced in the 1940s, whooping cough was one of the most frequent and severe diseases of infants in the United States.
 petechiae tiny red or purple bruises
 petechial containing tiny red or purple bruises
 Peyer’s patches a group of lymph nodes at the junction of the large and small intestines
 phagocyte any of several classes of lymphocytes that consume invading organisms and antigens
 pharmocotherapy refers to the use of medications to treat symptoms, illness, or disease
 pharyngeal pertaining to the throat area
 pharyngitis inflammation of the throat
 pharynx throat
 phenol a type of alcohol that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 phenol² a type of alcohol contained in the diluent for Dryvax(R) smallpox vaccine
 phenol red a type of alcohol that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 photophobia abnormal painful sensitivity to light
 pituitary gland a hormone-producing gland in the brain that receives signals from the hypothalamus; helps to regulate many body processes, including sleep, emotions, and immune responses
 placebo a harmless substance, e.g., sterile saline, used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness of another substance, in this case influenza vaccine
 placebos harmless substances, e.g., sugar pills or sterile saline, used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness and safety of a medication by comparing the effects of the placebo against the effects of the medication
 placenta a blood-rich structure through which the fetus takes in oxygen, food, and other substances and gets rid of wastes
 plague a highly contagious, usually fatal infection caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria, which are transmitted by fleas from rats to humans, or person to person; there are three types: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic; mortality rate is high if not treated with antibiotic promptly.
 plasma the liquid portion of the blood
 plasma cell a B cell in a form capable of producing antibodies
 platelet a small, flat disk in the blood that aids in blood clotting
 platelet count a blood test that measures the quantity of platelets, which help with clotting and may be decreased if liver function is impaired
 pleuritic chest pain chest pain that occurs due to inflamation of the pleura, which is the membrane that lines the chest cavity
 pneumococcal of or related to, derived from, or caused by pneumococci (also called diplococci), which are a type of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria; pneumococcal diseases include pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal bacteremia, and pneumococcal meningitis, which all cause significant mortality; also causes otitis media in children
 pneumococcal² related to pneumococcus bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae). These bacteria are found throughout the world and are spread from person-to-person in droplets sprayed out of the respiratory tract. There are 90 known kinds of S. pneumoniae and most cause serious disease (e.g., pneumonia, brain infection, blood infections, and ear infections). In the United States, 85% to 90% of invasive infections in older children and adults are caused by 23 of these kinds of S. pneumoniae.
 pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused by infection or irritation
 pneumonitis inflammation of the lungs
 polio short for poliomyelitis; a highly infectious viral disease that causes inflammation of the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to paralysis, muscle deformity, and sometimes death
 polio² an acute infectious disease caused by the poliovirus and characterized by fever, motor paralysis, and atrophy of skeletal muscles, often with permanent disability and deformity; marked by inflammation of nerve cells in the anterior gray matter in each lateral half of the spinal cord; also called infantile paralysis.
 poliomyelitis a highly infectious viral disease that causes inflammation of the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to paralysis, muscle deformity, and sometimes death
 poliovirus the virus that cuases polio disease (poliomyelitis)
 polymerase chain reaction test which quickly makes many copies of a specific segment of DNA; often used to help diagnosis viral illnesses
 polymyxin B an antibiotic that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 polysaccharide long chains of sugar molecules that make up the capsules of certain bacteria
 polysaccharides long chains of sugar molecules that make up the capsules of certain bacteria
 polysaccharide capsule a protective covering made out of carbohydrates that surrounds some bacteria
 polysaccharide vaccine an inactivated subunit vaccine composed of long chains of sugar molecules that make up the capsule of certain bacteria
 polysorbate a emulsifier used in some foods and medications
 polysorbate² a substance used in some foods and medications to create a suspension (keeps particles floating in a liquid)
 portable chest film a chest x-ray taken by a portable x-ray machine that is brought into the patient's room
 positive a serologic test that is positive tells you that the antigen or antibody being tested for is present
 positive skin test if the person has been exposed to TB in the past, the immune system remembers this and reacts when PPD is injected under the skin; a positive PPD (hardened area on the skin where the PPD was injected) show that that person needs more testing to see if he or she currently is infected with tuberculosis
 posterior referring to the back part of a structure
 post-exposure prophylaxis treatment given after exposure to a microbe in order to prevent the development of a disease
 postexposure prophylaxis treatment given after exposure to a microbe in order to prevent the development of a disease
 post-partum refers to the peroid of time after a baby is delivered
 postvaccinial encephalitis an inflammation of the brain that occurs after vaccination
 potency strength
 potent strong; medically effective
 potent² strong; effective
 povidone-iodine an antibacterial agent applied to the skin; also called Betadine®
 PPD abbreviation for purified protein derivative, which is pieces of TB bacteria
 PPD (purified protein derivative) a skin test for tuberculosis in which PPD, which contains pieces of tuberculosis (TB) bacteria, is administered intradermally; if the person has been exposed to TB in the past, the immune system recognizes the bacteria and an induration appears where the PPD was injected (positive PPD); a positive PPD is an indication that the person needs further testing to determine if he or she currently is infected with tuberculosis
 PPD test abbreviation for purified protein derivative, which contains pieces of TB bacteria. If a person has been exposed to TB in the past, the immune system remembers this and reacts when PPD is injected under the skin; a positive PPD (hardened area on the skin where the PPD was injected) show that that person needs more testing to see if he or she currently is infected with tuberculosis
 PPV23 an abbreviation for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria
 precaution a condition in a person considered for vaccination that may increase the person's chance of experiencing an adverse event, or that may compromise the ability of the vaccine to produce immunity
 precautions conditions in a person considered for vaccination that may increase the person's chance of experiencing an adverse event, or that may compromise the ability of the vaccine to produce immunity
 precipitate particles that do not disolve in a solution
 prednisone a synthetic corticosteroid used as an antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppresant drug
 pre-draw drawing vaccine doses up in syringes before it is time to vaccinate
 pre-exposure prophylaxis vaccination, e.g., for rabies, that is given before a person is exposed to rabies; eliminates the need for rabies immune globulin (RIG) and decreases the number of doses of rabies vaccine needed; also may protect people if postexposure vaccination is delayed, and may protect people who are at risk for rabies and who do not know that they are at risk
 preicteric before jaundice begins
 premature labor contractions that occur before a pregnant woman's due date
 premenopausal the phase of life prior to the cessation of menstruation during which reproduction is still possible
 prenatal occurring before birth, either prior to pregnancy or during the time between pregnancy and birth
 preservative a substance added to vaccines to keep them from spoiling
 preservatives substances added to vaccines to keep them from spoiling
 pressure ulcers areas of skin and tissue that are injured or broken down by prolonged pressure that causes a decreased blood supply to the areas
 presumptive diagnosis a preliminary diagnosis that is reasonable based on symptoms and circumstances that could indicate a history of exposure, e.g., recent travel, time of year, history of mosquito bites. A presumptive diagnosis can change based on additional information.
 prevalence the number of cases of a specific disease in a given population at a certain time
 primary dose the first dose
 primary immune deficiency an inherited defect in immune system function caused by missing or dysfunctional immune components
 primary immunodeficiency an inherited defect in immune system function caused by missing or dysfunctional immune components
 primary series a series of several vaccine doses initially needed to establish immunity
 primary vaccination a series of several vaccine doses initially needed to establish immunity; in the case of smallpox vaccine, the first time the vaccine is administered
 primary immunization a series of several vaccine doses initially needed to establish immunity
 primary vaccination² a series of several vaccine doses initially needed to establish immunity
 primates the group of mammals that includes apes and monkeys
 privileged physician a physician who has been granted clinical privileges to practice in a certain area of medicine at a particular facility based on his or documented training and/or experience, demonstrated abilities and current competence
 prodromal early symptoms indicating the beginning of a disease
 prodrome early symptoms indicating the beginning of a disease
 profound autism a developmental disability that first appears in early childhood; autism causes problems with communication, social interaction, and intelligence, and in profound autism the person has greater impairment
 prognosis a prediction of the course of a disease, e.g., either recovery or death
 progressive continually proceeding to become more severe or wide in scope
 progressive vaccinia a severe smallpox vaccination complication, which usually occurs in people who have immune system dysfunction; characterized by uncontrolled replication and spread of the vaccinia virus
 proguanil a type of antimalarial medication
 proliferate to grow and multiply
 proof healthcare provider documentation or lab results that show that the person has already been vaccinated against the disease or has had the disease in the past
 prophylaxis prevention of disease
 prostate a gland in the male that produces the fluid in semen
 prostration complete exhaustion
 protamine sulfate substance used to make some vaccines
 protective antibodies substances made by the body in response to antigens
 protective environment refers to an environment that is nearly free of germs; used when a person has an extremely weak immune system
 protein any molecule made up of amino acids; proteins form much of an organism's structure and are responsible for many of its functions
 protein carrier a protein that is linked (conjugated) to a polysaccharide antigen in a vaccine to make the vaccine work better over a longer period of time; protein carriers used in Hib conjugate vaccines include diphtheria toxoid (PRP-D), a diphtheria toxoid-like protein (PRP-HbOC), tetanus toxoid (PRP-T), or meningococcal outer membrane protein (PRP-OMP)
 protein carrier² a protein that is linked (conjugated) to a polysaccharide antigen in a vaccine to make the vaccine work better over a longer period of time
 protein-conjugated a vaccine in which proteins that the immune system can recognize are attached to the outer coat of the disease-causing microbe to promote an immune response; leads to increased immunogenicity in infants and antibody booster response to multiple doses of vaccine
 protein nitrogen units measure the protein content of the compounds used in allergen extracts; unfortunately, protein content measurements depend on the technique of measurement used, so results of one manufacturer are not comparable to those of another manufacturer
 proteolytic refers to substances that aid in the breakdown of proteins
 protezoa a microscopic organism that shares some characteristics with animals; some cause disease
 pruritus itching
 psoriasis a chronic, non-contagious autoimmune skin disease that is characterized by scaly red itchy patches
 PRP purified polyribosylribitol phosphate
 puberty the stage in adolescence in which secondary sexual characteristics appear and the person becomes capable of reproduction
 pulmonary related to the lungs
 pulmonary emboli blood clots that travel through the bloodstream into the lungs and block the pulmonary blood vessels resulting in death of lung tissue
 pulmonary function tests tests to measure lung function, such as peak flow expiratory rate
 pulse oximetry a noninvasive method of assessing arterial oxygen saturation
 pulseless electrical activity having no pulse, but still having electrical activity of the heart as indicated by electrocardiogram; also called PEA
 purifiers a mechanical device that helps to remove small particles, such as pollen, dust and other allergens, from the air
 purpura hemorrhages into the skin that cause purple spots or patches
 pus a thick, yellowish-white fluid in infected tissues that consists of white blood cells and cellular debris
 pustular consisting of or characterized by circumscribed, elevated skin lesions that contain pus
 pustule circumscribed, elevated whitish or pinkish skin lesions that contain pus
 quadrivalent also called tetravalent; a quadrivalent (tetravalent) vaccine is made of antigens from four meningococcal serogroups
 quadrivalent² also called tetravalent; a quadrivalent (tetravalent) vaccine is made of antigens from four serogroup types
 quarantine isolation of people who either have or have been exposed to a contagious disease to prevent the spread of that disease
 rabies a usually fatal viral infection of the central nervous system that is transmitted by contact with the saliva of an infected animal, e.g., through a bite
 rabies² a deadly viral infection of the brain and spine that is spread by contact with the spit (saliva) of an infected animal, such as from a bite
 rabies immune globulin also called RIG or HRIG; a sterile solution containing antirabies virus antibodies obtained from the plasma of donors who were recently given rabies vaccine; use for passive immunization against rabies
 rabies immune globulin² also called RIG or HRIG; a sterile solution containing antibodies against rabies; it is obtained from the plasma of donors who were recently given rabies vaccine; RIG provides immediate, but temporary protection, from rabies while the vaccine is helping the body to form longer lasting antibodies to fight rabies infection
 radiation therapy the treatment of disease, e.g., cancer, using radiation
 radiocontrast dye dye injected for medical diagnostic procedures to allow improved visualization of vessels and other structures, such as during a CT scan or an IVP
 radiographic x-ray or other image produced on film or another surface, such as MRI or CT scan
 ranitidine medication that has antihistamine properties, often given for gastrointestinal disorders
 RAST RadioAllergoSorbent Test; a type of blood test used to measure quantities of specific IgE antibodies by exposing the sample to various allergens
 reactive a serologic test that is reactive tells you that the antigen or antibody being tested for is present
 reactogenicity the ability to cause a reaction, especially an immunologic reaction
 receptor a site on a cell membrane that accepts molecules
 recombinant DNA a technology used in making hepatitis B vaccine in which the genes for the antigen HBsAg are inserted into baker's yeast, which then produces noninfectious HBsAg
 recombinant vaccine a technology used in making certain vaccines in which the genes from a virus can be inserted into yeast, which then produces noninfectious antigens
 reconstitute add liquid to a powder to create a solution
 reconstituted restored by the addition of liquid
 reconstitutes restores by the addition of liquid
 reconstitution restoration by the addition of liquid
 rectal prolapse when the wall of the rectum protrudes through the anus outside of the body
 red blood cells disk-shaped blood cells that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the cells of the body
 red cell aplasia undeveloped or poorly developed red blood cells
 red pulp tissues in the spleen that filter the blood and eliminate debris, contaminants, and cells that have deteriorated
 reflexes involuntary movements of the body caused by nerve impulses in response to stimuli
 reflux disease a condition in which infants may spit up a mixture of gastric acid and breast milk/formula because the sphincter between the esophagus and stomach is weak
 refractory resistant to treatment
 rejection a process by which the immune system attacks foreign tissue, e.g., an organ transplant, causing eventual death of the tissue; medications can be given to suppress the immune system and prevent rejection
 relapse when a disease returns after it has seemed to go away
 reliable history a parental or personal history of varicella is sufficient because the symptoms of varicella are distinctive and 71% to 93% of adults without a reliable history of varicella are immune to VZV; physician documentation of varicella illness is not required
 renal related to the kidneys
 replicate multiply or reproduce
 replicates reproduces or copies itself
 replicating multiplying or reproducing
 replication the act of multiplying or reproducing
 remission a period in the course of a disease when the symptoms lessen or disappear
 reservoir an organism in which a pathogen lives and multiplies without causing the organism damage, e.g., humans who are nonsymptomatic carriers of S. typhi are reservoirs for the bacteria that cause typhoid fever
 resistant having the power to resist, e.g., to resist the effects of a medication or a microbe
 respiratory related to the body's breathing system, including the mouth, nose, pharynx, and lungs
 respiratory alkalosis abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
 respiratory arrest a medical emergency in which the lungs stop taking in air; absence of breathing
 respiratory failure the inability of the lungs to perform their basic task of gas exchange (oxygen for carbon dioxide), resulting in decreased oxygen in the blood circulating in the body to nourish the tissues
 respiratory isolation use for patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms than can be transmitted by airborne droplets; requires that patients be placed in negative pressure rooms with 6 - 12 air exchanges/hour and appropriate air filtration; also requires that caregivers and others wear approved respiratory protection while in the patient room
 respiratory system the body's breathing tract, including the mouth, nose, pharynx, and lungs
 respiratory tract the body's breathing system, including the mouth, nose, pharynx, and lungs
 resuscitation reviving a person from unconsciousness or apparent death
 resuscitation² includes breathing for the patient and chest compressions; this is the same as CPR
 re-suspend cause the vaccine particles, which have been resting in the bottom of the vial, to float in the fluid (diluent)
 retinitis inflammation of the retina of the eye
 revaccination vaccination of a person who has been previously vaccinated
 Reye syndrome a complication that occurs mainly in children and can result in severe vomiting and confusion, which may progress to coma and death
 rheumatoid arthritis an autoimmune disease that attacks and destroys the tissues of the joints and bones
 rhinitis runny nose
 rhinorrhea runny nose
 ribavirin a type of antiviral medication
 rifampin an antibiotic that commonly is used to treat tuberculosis; it also is used to eliminate Hib bacteria from the nasopharynx
 rigor severe shivering or chills
 RNA abbreviation for ribonucleic acid; this is the genetic material found in viruses
 rodent protein protein from a mouse, rat, or other rodent; some vaccines, such as Japanese encephalitis, are grown in rodents or rodent brains
 rotavirus a common viral infection among young children; it is the most common cause of intestinal illness and diarrhea in U.S. children and is a leading cause of death among children in developing countries
 RT-PCR test that quickly makes many copies of a specific segment of DNA; often used to help diagnosis viral illnesses
 rubella also known as "German measles;" a usually mild viral disease that causes fever and skin rash; if it occurs during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy, it can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which can result in congenital defects, fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth; up to 85% of infants infected with CRS in the first trimester will have CRS-related problems, including deafness, cataracts, heart defects, microcephaly, mental retardation, bone alterations, and liver and spleen damage
 rubella² also known as "German measles;" a usually mild viral disease that causes fever and skin rash; if it occurs during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy, it can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which can result in congenital defects, fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth; up to 85% of infants infected with CRS in the first trimester will have CRS-related problems, including deafness, cataracts, heart defects, microcephaly, mental retardation, bone alterations, and liver and spleen damage
 rubella³ The name rubella is derived from Latin, meaning "little red." It was initially considered to be a variant of measles or scarlet fever and was called "third disease." It was not until 1814 that it was first described as a separate disease in the German medical literature. In 1914, Hess postulated a viral etiology based on his work with monkeys. Hiro and Tosaka in 1938 confirmed the viral etiology by passing the disease to children using filtered nasal washings from acute cases. Following a widespread epidemic of rubella infection in 1940, Norman Gregg, an Australian ophthalmologist, reported in 1941 the occurrence of congenital cataracts among 78 infants born following maternal rubella infection in early pregnancy. This was the first reported recognition of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Rubella virus was first isolated in 1962 by Parkman and Weller. Rubella virus is classified as a togavirus, genus Rubivirus. It is most closely related to group A arboviruses, such as Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis viruses. It is an enveloped RNA virus, with a single antigenic type that does not cross-react with other members of the togavirus group. Rubella virus is relatively unstable and is inactivated by lipid solvents, trypsin, formalin, ultraviolet light, extremes of pH and heat, and amantadine.
 rubella Immunoglobulin M (IgM) an antibody produced by the body in response to rubella infection that usually wanes over six months; its presence indicates recent rubella infection
 rural found in or living in the country, especially farming areas
 rush immunotherapy an accelerated immunotherapy build-up schedule that involves giving incremental doses of allergen at intervals varying from 15 to 60 minutes over 1 to 3 days until the target dose is reached
 saliva spit; oral secretions from the salivary glands
 sample ratio units how results are quantified when a test called radioimmunoassay (RIA) is used to check for Anti-HBs
 SAMS acronym for Shipboard Automated Medical System
 sanatoriums medical facilities where people affected by long-term illnesses can receive treatment and where those recovering from severe illnesses can recuperate
 sanitary something that is clean and healthy; the condition of being clean
 sanitation the process that makes something clean, germ-free, and healthy
 satellite lesion a smaller lesion located near and accompanying a main lesion
 SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease) a rare genetic disease of the immune system in which the body is not capable of making either T or B-lymphocytes
 scope of practice defined parameters of various duties or services that may be provided by an individual with specific credentials. Whether regulated by law, statute, or court decision, it represents the limits of services an individual may legally perform.
 scratch testing a type of skin test in which the skin surface is scratched and exposed to a substance to check for an allergy to the substance
 screen checking a person or a group of people to see if they have ever had a disease or condition
 screener a person who is qualified to ask questions of a patient to see whether a vaccine is indicated or contraindicated for that patient
 screening checking a person or a group of people to see if they have ever had a disease or condition
 screening² checking a person or a group of people to see whether they have ever had a disease or condition or received specific vaccines
 sebum fatty secretions from the sebaceous glands (glands in the surface of the skin that open into a hair follicle) that are believed to contain chemicals that kill bacteria
 second stage of labor the part of the birth process in which the baby is being pushed out and delivered
 secondary bacterial infection infections, caused by bacteria, that occur during or after a primary infection; can result from treatments for the primary infection or from immune system alterations
 secretions mucus and saliva
 secure and confidential website a website that makes sure that all of your communication, questions, and personal information is kept strictly private
 seizure sudden spasms or convulsions
 seizures sudden spasms or convulsions
 self-inoculation a process, usually accidental, by which a person introduces an antigenic substances or vaccine into his or her own body
 self-limited a disease or condition that follows a definite course over a specific period of time, without or without treatment
 semen whitish fluid discharged through the penis during sexual activity
 sensironeural deafness deafness caused by damage to the nerves of the ears
 sensitive capable of being effectively treated with a particular drug
 sensitization when exposure to an allergen causes the person to produce IgE antibody to that allergen, we say that the person has been sensitized to that allergen
 sensory nerve ganglia a collection of nerves outside the spinal cord that carry sensory information, such as pain, to the spinal cord
 sepsis the presence or spread of bacteria or their toxins away from the site of the infection
 septic related to or affected by sepsis, which is the presence or spread of bacteria or their toxin away from the site of the infection
 septicemia bacterial infection of the blood; also known as blood poisoning; symptoms include fever, chills, low blood pressure, rash, confusion, prostration
 sequelae the aftereffects of a disease or injury, e.g., seizures can be sequelae of meningitis
 serial dilutions a series of dilutions whereby the original solution is diluted and each resulting dilution is then further diluted.
 serial testing testing that is done repeatedly on a period basis
 seroconvert to change from not having protective antibodies to having protective antibodies against an illness
 seroconversion changing (converting) from not having protective antibodies to having antibodies that protect against an illness
 serogroup a group of organisms that share a common set of antigens
 serogroups groups of organisms that share a common set of antigens
 serologic related to blood serum, which is the plasma (clear part) of the blood that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells; often used for screening purposes
 serologic assay in vitro interactions between antigens and antibodies that can be used diagnostically to detect serum antibodies to specific infectious agents and identify microorganisms in clinical specimens
 serologic test testing done on blood serum to detect the presence of antibodies
 serological evidence positive results from tests demonstrating immunity that are performed on blood serum
 serological testing testing done on blood serum, which is the plasma (clear part) of the blood that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells; often used for screening purposes
 seropositive the presence of protective antibodies in the blood serum
 serotype a group of organisms that share a common set of antigens (substances capable of inducing antibody formation)
 serotyped a test completed to determine which particular type of microorganism is present when there is a group of microorganisms that share a common set of antigens
 serotypes a group of organisms that share a common set of antigens
 serum creatinine a blood test that helps to measure kidney function; when the kidney is not working, the amount of creatinine in the blood will rise
 serum measles immunoglobulin G an antibody that is produced by the body in response to measles infection and that persists for a person's lifetime; its presence in the absence of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) indicates that the person is immune to measles, but does not currently have measles and has not recently had measles
 serum rubella immunoglobulin G an antibody produced by the body in response to rubella infection that persists for a person's lifetime; its presence in the absence of rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) indicates that the person is immune to rubella, but does not currently have rubella and has not recently had rubella
 serum varicella immunoglobulin G an antibody that persists for a person's lifetime and is produced by the body in response to VZV infection; its presence in the absence of varicella immunoglobulin M (IgM) indicates that the person is immune to VZV, but neither currently nor recently has had varicella
 serum the clear fluid portion of the blood that remains after clotting; serum contains antibodies, which confer passive immunity if injected into another person
 serum sickness hypersensitivity reaction to the administration of a foreign serum; characterized by fever, swelling, skin rash, and lymph node enlargement
 severe allergic reaction a severe and sometimes deadly allergic reaction that can cause hives, itching, swelling, and breathing problems; also called anaphylaxis
 shelf life how long a vaccine stays save and effective when it is stored the right way
 shock a serious reaction to illness, trauma, loss of blood, or dehydration that causes a steep drop in blood pressure and inadequate circulation in the body
 short-gut syndrome a disorder in which the small intestine is shorter than normal, causing malabsorption of nutrients
 sickle cell disease an inherited disorder of the red blood cells that causes anemia
 sickle cell disease² an inherited disorder of the red blood cells that causes anemia; people with this are at increased risk for severe infections
 SIDS an acronym for sudden infant death syndrome, which is the unexpected and sudden death of a normal and healthy infant that occurs during sleep with no evidence of disease
 silicosis a lung disease caused by prolonged inhalation of dust containing silica; causes development of fibrous tissue in the lungs, resulting in chronic shortness of breath
 simultaneous administration giving more than one vaccine at the same time in a different syringe and into a different injection site on the body
 simultaneously at the same time
 single-agent a vaccine that contains only one agent
 single-antigen a vaccine that contains only one antigen (e.g., tetanus toxoid), as opposed to a vaccine that contains more than one type of antigen (e.g., tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid)
 single-antigen vaccine a vaccine that contains only one antigen (e.g., rubella vaccine), as opposed to a vaccine that contains more than one type of antigen (e.g., combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine)
 skin testing a test in which a substance is applied to the skin or under the skin to determine whether a person is allergic to the substance or has antibodies against the substance
 SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys cells of the skin, blood vessels, kidneys, and heart
 slough when dead tissue separates and is shed off of live tissue
 small intestine the narrow, winding, upper part of the intestine between the stomach and the large intestine where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed by the blood
 smallpox an acute viral illness caused by the variola virus; early symptoms include high fever and fatigue, then a characteristic rash, particularly on the face, arms and legs; historically, fatality rate averages 30%
 smallpox² a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word for "spotted" and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.
 smears samples of blood or bacteria that is spread thinly on a slide for examination under a microscope
 sodium borate a compound used when making certain vaccines
 solid organ transplant the transfer of a solid organ (e.g., liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, lung) or tissue (e.g., skin) from one person to another person
 soluble something that can be dissolved, or caused to pass into a solution
 solvent any liquid in which another substance can be dissolved
 SOP standard operating procedure
 SOPs stardard operating procedures
 sorbitol a sugar alcohol used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 specific immune globuin also called hyper-immune globulin; special preparations prepared from donor pools that are specially selected for a high antibody content against a specific disease, e.g., hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG), rabies immune globluin (RIG), and tetanus immune globulin (TIG)
 spinal cord the bundle of nerve tissues that carry impulses between the brain and the rest of the body
 spinal fluid also called cerebrospinal fluid; the serum-like fluid that fills and cushions the brain and the spinal cord
 spinal relating to the spine or spinal cord, which is the bundle of nerve tissues that carry impulses between the brain and the rest of the body
 spleen an abdominal organ in the lymphatic system that filters the blood, removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes, removes worn-out red blood cells, and stores extra blood in the body
 spleen² an organ in the abdomen that filters blood, removes germs and worn-out blood cells, stores extra blood, and helps the body to fight infections
 spleens abdominal organ in the lymphatic system that filters the blood, removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes, removes worn-out red blood cells, and stores extra blood in the body
 splenectomy surgical removal of the spleen, which is an abdominal organ in the lymphatic system that filters the blood, removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes, removes worn-out red blood cells, and stores extra blood in the body
 splenomegaly enlarged spleen
 split-virus vaccine split-virus influenza vaccine is made from whole-virus vaccine, which is further treated with chemicals to break the viruses into pieces
 spontaneous abortion a miscarriage or stillbirth
 spore a tough, protective coat around some kinds of bacteria
 spore-forming bacterium a certain type of microbe that can form a tough protective coat around its essential matter to allow survival for long periods of time in unfavorable conditions
 spores tough, protective coats around some kinds of bacteria
 sputum mucus and phlegm coughed up from the respiratory tract
 stabilizer a chemical that is added to a substance to keep the substance in a stable, or unchanging, state
 stabilizing agents a chemical added to a substance to keep the substance in a stable, or unchanging, state
 standardized allergen extracts extracts of allergenic components that usually contain protein that is prepared in a laboratory environment so that the quantity and purity of the allergen can be consistently maintained; this type of extract is used for testing and allergen injections
 standards accepted principles for patient management
 standing orders pre-existing, healthcare provider-approved orders that allow certain actions to be taken when specific circumstances exist; standing orders often specify administration of indicated medications; standing orders eliminate the need for individual written orders
 Staphylococcus epidermis a bacterium normally found on skin and mucous membranes; normally does not cause disease, but opportunistically can cause endocarditis, wound infection, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia in people who are immune deficient
 stat without delay; immediately
 STAT immediately
 stem cell a cell made by bone marrow that can change into different kinds of cells, including blood cells, as needed by the body
 stem cells cells made by the bone marrow that can differentiate into different kinds of cells, including blood cells, as needed by the body
 sterility the inability to reproduce (have children)
 sterile free from live microorganisms
 sterile² germ-free
 sterile technique procedures used to reduce and maintain objects and areas as free from germs as possible; includes thorough handwashing and use of a sterile field, sterile gloves, and sterile instruments
 sterilize using chemical or physical agents to kill microorganisms
 steroid preparation drugs given to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the adrenal gland; actions include increasing sodium retention and potassium excretion, affecting carbohydrate and fat metabolism, reducing tissue inflammation, and suppressing the immune system
 steroids drugs given to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the adrenal gland; actions include increasing sodium retention and potassium excretion, affecting carbohydrate and fat metabolism, reducing tissue inflammation, and suppressing the immune system
 steroids² type of medication used to decrease inflammation; can depress the immune system
 stillbirth the delivery of a fetus that died before or during delivery
 stool bowel movement; feces
 stopper rubber cork at the top of the vaccine vial
 strabismus inability of the eyes to focus together because of an imbalance in the muscles that control eye movement
 strain¹ a strain of influenza virus is a group of influenza viruses that is characterized by some particular quality, such as the type of antigens it contains
 strain² a strain of anthrax bacteria is a group of anthrax bacteria that is characterized by some particular quality, such as the fact that it causes disease
 strains a strain of influenza virus is a group of influenza viruses that is characterized by some particular quality, such as the type of antigens it contains
 Streptococcus pneumoniae also known as pneumococcus. Causes middle ear infections, pneumonia, blood stream infections (bacteremia), sinus infections, and meningitis.
 streptomycin an antibiotic that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 stridor a harsh, high-pitched sound heard during breathing when airway obstruction is present
 stridor² high-pitched, noisy sound occurring during inhalation or exhalation; indicates respiratory obstruction in the throat area
 stroke also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or "brain attack"; rupture or obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain that causes damage to the brain tissue, often resulting in loss of consciousness, movement, or sensation
 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis an uncommon, slow infection caused by the measles virus; causes brain swelling, personality changes, seizures, and blindness; no known treatment
 subconjunctival occurring or situated beneath the mucous membrane that covers the eyeball and lines the inner surface of the eyelid
 subcutaneous the area just beneath the skin, but above the muscle
 subcutaneously into the area just beneath the skin, but above the muscle
 subjective symptoms symptoms that a person perceives, but that may not be observable or verifiable by the healthcare professional
 subpotent less potent (strong) or weaker than normal
 sulfonamide-based of, relating to, or containing sulfanilamide or any sulfa drug; used in the treatment of infections and other diseases; some oral diabetes medications also contain sulfa
 sulfonamides also called sulfa drugs; medications that inhibit bacteria growth and activity
 suicide enzymes proteins injected by NK cells into bacterial- and viral-infected cells that tell the infected cells to destroy themselves
 supine lying on the back with the face upward
 supportive care care that is provided to keep a person alive and comfortable while an illness runs its course; care that relieves symptoms
 suppress to inhibit or stop the activity of something, such as the immune system
 suppressor T cells lymphocytes that slow the immune response after bacterial or viral infections have been controlled by the immune system
 surface proteins proteins, which vary according to strain and species, that exist on the surface of cell membranes and have different functions, including: acting as enzymes; allowing pathogens to closely adhere to host cells to colonize and resist flushing; allowing pathogens to penetrate host cells; and aiding certain pathogens to resist phagocytosis
 surveillance close and continuous observation or testing
 surveillance programs observational studies that involve continuous monitoring of disease occurrence within a population
 susceptibility the state of not having protective immunity against specific disease-causing microbes and therefore being more likely to become ill if exposed to those microbes
 susceptible having little or no resistance to a disease
 suspension visible particles dispersed throughout a liquid
 suspension² visible particles floating throughout a liquid
 sustained fever fever that remains elevated over a period of time
 symmetric the same on both sides, e.g., in symmetric weakness of the legs, both legs are equally weak
 symmetrical the same on both sides, e.g., in symmetric weakness of the legs, both legs are equally weak
 sympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that originates in the lumbar and thoracic regions of the spinal cords; acts to increase heart rate, contract blood vessels, and reduce digestive secretions
 symptom a sign or indication of disorder or disease
 symptoms signs or indications of disorder or disease
 symptomatic concerned with or affecting symptoms, e.g., symptomatic care is care directed at relieving symptoms, such as fever and pain
 symptomatic2 having a sign or indication of disorder or disease
 symptomatically of, related to, or according to symptoms
 syncope fainting
 systemic generally, having an effect throughout the body. Systemic reactions to vaccination occur at sites distant from the injection site. Systemic reactions can range from mild (headache) to severe (anaphylaxis).
 systemic² having an effect thoughout the body
 systemic immune suppressive therapy administration of medical treatments, such as certain medications and radiation, that decrease the effectiveness of the body's immune system
 systemic immunosuppressive therapy administration of medical treatments, such as certain medications and radiation, that decrease the effectiveness of the body's immune system
 systemic lupus erythematosus an imflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect the whole body, causing fevers, joint pain, anemia, rashes, and involvement of body organs, such as the spleen, kidneys, and central nervous system
 systemic reaction generally, having an effect throughout the body; examples include fever, headache, fatigue, joint pain, etc
 tachycardia rapid heart beat
 tachypnea rapid breathing
 take reaction at the site of smallpox vaccination; if, 6 to 8 days after vaccination, there is a pustular lesion present at the vaccine administration site, the reaction is interpreted as "a take"
 T cells a category of lymphocytes that includes Killer, Helper, and Suppressor types of cells
 targeted testing testing people at highest risk for a disease
 TB skin testing a test for tuberculosis in which PPD, which contains pieces of tuberculosis (TB) bacteria, is injected just under the skin; if the person has been exposed to TB in the past, the immune system recognizes the bacteria and a hardened area appears where the PPD was injected (positive PPD); a positive PPD is an indication that the person needs further testing to see whether if he or she currently is infected with tuberculosis
 Td tetanus and diphtheria toxoid, for use in adults and children after the 7th birthday
 Tdap one of two tetanus toxoid and reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine products, one for persons aged 10-18 years and the other for persons aged 11-64 years.
 Tdap² combination vaccine containing tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis
 T-dependent immunity resistance to illness that develops only after T-cells have been presented with an antigen; the T-cells activate B-cells, which produce antibodies to that antigen
 temperate climates areas of the world characterized by moderate temperatures (not too cold or too warm) all year long
 testicular related to the testicles, the male gonads in which sperm and testosterone are produced
 tetanus also called lockjaw; an acute, infectious disease of the nervous system in which toxins produced by Clostidium tetani bacteria, which usually enter the body through a wound, cause severe muscle spasms leading to death
 tetanus² an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles. The muscle stiffness usually involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then becomes generalized. Although records from antiquity (5th century B.C.) contain clinical descriptions of tetanus, it was Carle and Rattone who first produced tetanus in animals by injecting them with pus from a fatal human tetanus case in 1884. During the same year, Nicolaier produced tetanus in animals by injecting them with samples of soil. In 1889, Kitasato isolated the organism from a human victim, showed that it produced disease when injected into animals, and reported that the toxin could be neutralized by specific antibodies. In 1897, Nocard demonstrated the protective effect of passively transferred antitoxin, and passive immunization in humans was used during World War I. Tetanus toxoid was developed by Descombey in 1924, and the effectiveness of active immunization was demonstrated in World War II. Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) is a slender, gram-positive, anaerobic rod that may develop a terminal spore, giving it a drumstick appearance. The organism is sensitive to heat and cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. The spores, in contrast, are very resistant to heat and the usual antiseptics. They can survive autoclaving at 121°C for 10-15 minutes. The spores are also relatively resistant to phenol and other chemical agents. The spores are widely distributed in soil and in the intestine and feces of horses, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, and chickens. Manure-treated soil may contain large numbers of spores. In agricultural areas, a significant number of human adults may harbor the organism. The spores can also be found on skin surfaces and in contaminated heroin.
 tetanus immune globulin (TIG) a sterile solution of immune globulin obtained from the blood of people who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid and have a high tetanus antibody titer; used for passive immunization and tetanus prophylaxis
 tetanus immune globulin a solution obtained from the blood of people who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid and have high tetanus antibody levels; used to provide immediate, temporary protection against tetanus
 tetanus immune globulin² a solution obtained from the blood of people who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid and have high tetanus antibody levels; used to provide immediate, temporary protection against tetanus
 tetanus prophylaxis administration of tetanus toxoid and/or tetanus immune globulin to prevent tetanus caused by Clostridium tetani
 tetany periodic painful muscles spasms and tremors
 tetracycline an antibiotic that is used in the manufacture of some vaccines
 thermal reactions refers to group of symptoms that develop shortly after receiving a foreign serum; includes chills, shortness or breath, and rapid rise in temperature; similar to blood transfusion reactions
 thermostat a device in the vaccine storage unit that is used to set and control the temperature
 thimerosal a mercury-containing compound that kills bacteria; used as a preservative
 thrombocytopenia a decreased number of platelets in the blood, which can be associated with bleeding
 thrombocytopenic purpura bleeding into the skin that causes petechiae or larger bruises associated with decreased platelets in the blood and prolonged bleeding time
 thymic dendritic cells cells of the thymus that are able to present antigen markers on their cell membranes
 thymus a gland behind the sternum (breastbone) where T cells develop and learn their functions
 thymus gland a gland behind the sternum (breastbone) where special white blood cells (T cells) develop and learn their functions
 tick-borne encephalitis a viral infection of the central nervous system transmitted by bites of certain ticks; symptoms may include fever, malaise, anorexia, muscle aches, headache, nausea, and/or vomiting; in 20% to 30% of patients, a second phase of the disease occurs that involves the central nervous system with symptoms of meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis
 titer the concentration of a substance in a given sample of blood or other tissue fluid
 titrate to gradually adjust (upward or downward) the dose of a medication until its desired effect is achieved
 tolerance the loss of or decrease in the response to an agent, such as an allergen
 tonsils glands tissue located on both sides of the throat that help the body to fight infection by trapping bacteria and viruses that enter through the mouth and nose
 topical applied directly onto a body part, such as the skin or mucous membranes
 tourniquet a device that, when secured around a limb, applies pressure on arteries and blood veins to stop or reduce blood flow
 toxic affected by a poison or toxin
 toxigenic something that produces toxins (poisons)
 toxin a poison produced by a living organism
 toxoid a toxin that has been modified to make it nontoxic, but which still can stimulate the body to form antibodies
 trace to find out about and locate people who have come into contact with a person known to be infected with a contagious disease for the purpose of protecting them against the disease or isolating them to prevent spread of the disease
 trace of blood a tiny spot of blood
 tracheal related to the windpipe, which connects the throat to the lungs
 transcutaneous pacing stimulating the heart to maintain a normal heart rhythm with a device that is applied to the skin
 transfer needle a special vented needle, which is included in the smallpox vaccine kit, that is used to transfer the diluent from the diluent syringe into the vial of lyophilized smallpox vaccine
 transfusion the transfer of whole blood or blood products from one person to another person
 transient something, such as a symptom, that exists only for a short time and then goes away
 transient ischemic attack a "mini-stroke" that produces stroke-like symptoms but no lasting damage
 transmission spread, or transfer from one person, animal, or object to another
 transmit spread or transfer from one person, animal or object to another
 transmitted spread from person to person
 transparent clear, see-through
 transplant transferring cells, tissues, or organs from one person to another person
 transplants transferring cells, tissues, or organs from one person to another person
 travel vaccines vaccines given to travelers to protect them against illnesses present where they are traveling
 treatment for cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy Chemotherapy and radiation therapy work by targeting cells that reproduce rapidly, such as cancer cells. Unfortunately, white blood cells, which are the body's natural defense against infection, also reproduce rapidly leaving patients at high risk for infection.
 treatment with large doses of corticosteroid Corticosteroids stop the body's normal inflammatory reactions to infection, which increases the risk for serious infection. People receiving 2 or more mg/kg per day (or 20 mg or more per day) of corticosteroid for 14 days or more should not receive MMR vaccine for a least one month after cessation of drug therapy. People receiving a lower dose of corticosteroid, treatment for fewer than 14 days, alternate-day therapy, maintenance physiological doses, or topical, aerosol, intra-articular (into the joint), bursal, or tendon injections of corticosteroid may be vaccinated.
 treatment with large doses of corticosteroid¹ Corticosteroids stop the body's normal inflammatory reactions to infection, which increases the risk for serious infection. People receiving 2 or more mg/kg per day (or 20 mg or more per day) of corticosteroid for 14 days or more should not receive varicella vaccine for a least one month after cessation of drug therapy. People receiving a lower dose of corticosteroid, treatment for fewer than 14 days, alternate-day therapy, maintenance physiological doses, or topical, aerosol, intra-articular (into the joint), bursal, or tendon injections of corticosteroid may be vaccinated.
 treatment with large doses of corticosteroid2 Corticosteroids stop the body's normal inflammatory reactions to infection, which increases the risk for serious infection. People receiving 2 or more mg/kg per day (or 20 mg or more per day) of corticosteroid for 14 days or more should not receive live virus vaccines for a least one month after cessation of drug therapy. People receiving a lower dose of corticosteroid, treatment for fewer than 14 days, alternate-day therapy, maintenance physiological doses, or topical, aerosol, intra-articular (into the joint), bursal, or tendon injections of corticosteroid may be vaccinated.
 triceps muscle on the back of the upper arm
 tricyclics a class of antidepressant medications
 trimester a period of three months; human pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, each three months long
 trivalent refers to a vaccine containing three components
 tuberculin a sterile fluid containing proteins extracted from M. tuberculosis cultures that is used for TST
 tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) antigen from dead tuberculosis (TB) bacteria that is injected into the skin to test whether a person has ever been infected by TB bacteria
 tuberculin skin test injection of antigen from dead tuberculosis (TB) bacteria that is injected into the skin to determine whether a person has ever been infected by tuberculosis bacteria; also called TB testing, or PPD (purified protein derivative) testing
 tuberculin skin testing antigen from dead tuberculosis (TB) bacteria that is injected into the skin to test whether a person has ever been infected by TB bacteria; also called TB skin testing or PPD (purified protein derivative) testing
 tuberculin syringe a syringe calibrated in hundredths of an mL and minims, which is used when small volumes are necessary; may hold a total volume of 1 or 0.5 mL
 tuberculosis (TB) an infectious bacterial disease; mainly affects the lungs, but can affect bones, joints and other parts of the body; treatable in most cases with antibiotics
 tuberculosis skin test injection of antigen from dead tuberculosis (TB) bacteria that is injected into the skin to determine if a person has ever been infected by tuberculosis bacteria; also called TB testing, or PPD (purified protein derivative) testing
 tuberculosis (TB) skin test injection of antigen from dead tuberculosis (TB) bacteria that is injected into the skin to determine if a person has ever been infected by tuberculosis bacteria; also called TB testing, or PPD (purified protein derivative) testing
 tumor necrosis factor a type of cytokine produced by WBCs that causes inflammation and has an antineoplastic (anticancer) effect
 Twinrix a vaccine for people 18 years of age and older that contains both hepatitis A vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine.
 typhoid an acute infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria; spread in contaminated food and water; symptoms include by fever, headache, gastrointestinal bleeding, coughing, and spots on the skin
 typhoid² an acute, life-threatening febrile illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica typhi. An estimated 16 million cases of typhoid fever and 600,000 related deaths occur worldwide each year. Approximately 2.6 cases of typhoid fever were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention per 1 million U.S. citizens and residents traveling abroad during the period 1992-1994.
 typhoid carrier a person who is infected with Salmonella typhi bacteria and can pass the infection to others, even if he or she does not appear to be ill.
 typhoid fever an acute infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi; spread in contaminated food and water and characterized by fever, headache, gastrointestinal bleeding, coughing, and spots on the skin
 type I diabetes an autoimmune disease that attacks the pancreas, which results in decreased production of insulin and high blood sugar
 ubiquitous found everywhere in large quantities
 µg micrograms
 ulcer an inflamed open sore on the skin
 ulnar nerve a nerve that passes around the elbow and continues down the inner side of the forearm to supply the little-finger side of the forearm and hand; also known as 'funny bone' nerve
 ulcerative colitis an autoimmune, chronic, episodic, inflammatory bowel disease that usually affects the large intestine and rectum
 umbilicated having a small central depression that resembles a naval (belly button)
 unencapsulated not contained within a capsule
 unhygienic not clean and sanitary
 unilateral occurring or existing only on one side
 unprotected sex sex in which no measures are taken to prevent the exchange of body fluids
 unstable angina poorly controlled chest pain that is caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart
 urethra the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
 urethritis inflammation of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body)
 urinates voids; passes water from inside the bladder, through the urethra, to the outside of the body
 urticaria also called "hives"; itchy, raised, red areas on the skin that can result from an allergic reaction
 urticarial containing hives
 USAMMA United States Army Medical Materiel Agency
 USAMRIID an acronym for United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
 USCG United States Coast Guard
 vaccination the process of administering a vaccine or toxoid to induce immunity to infection or disease
 vaccination certificate an official paper that indicates that a certain vaccine, such as yellow fever vaccine, has been given; some countries require this in order to enter the country
 vaccinations the process of administering a vaccine or toxoid to induce immunity to infection or disease
 vaccinator person administering a vaccine
 vaccinators people who administer vaccines
 vaccine a preparation of weakened or killed microbes, or parts of microbes, given to prevent, improve, or treat an infectious disease
 vaccine component items in vaccines that are used to help make or preserve vaccines; includes certain antibiotics, egg proteins, gelatin, etc.; components vary by vaccine
 vaccine component² a substance in a vaccine that is used to help make or preserve the vaccine; includes certain antibiotics, egg proteins, gelatin, etc.; different vaccines contain different components
 vaccine components preservatives, antibiotics, and other agents used in the processing and manufacture of vaccines; for example, egg protein, neomycin, and aluminum
 Vaccine Information Statements forms produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that explain to vaccine recipients, their parents, or their legal representatives both the benefits and risks of a vaccine. Federal law requires that VISs be handed out whenever (before each dose) certain vaccinations are given.
 vaccine-preventable disease a category of illnesses that can be prevented when certain immunological drugs are given to induce active immunity
 vaccine virus refers to the live virus present in a vaccine
 vaccinee someone who is given vaccine
 vaccinees people who are given vaccine
 vaccinia the live Othropoxvirus propagated for use as a smallpox vaccine for 200 years; no known natural hosts of vaccinia virus and its origin is not known
 vaccinia virus the live virus that has been used in smallpox vaccine for 200 years because it is similar to smallpox virus (variola virus)
 vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) a sterile solution containing vaccinia antibodies obtained from the plasma of donors who were recently given smallpox vaccine; used for passive immunization against smallpox and to treat certain adverse events related to vaccination with live virus vaccinia vaccine
 vaccinia immune globulin² a solution containing vaccinia antibodies obtained from the plasma of donors who were recently given smallpox vaccine; used to provide quick, temporary protection against smallpox and to treat certain adverse events related to smallpox vaccination
 vacutainer a tube used to blood collect
 vaccine inventories all vaccines stored at a particular location
 vaccine-preventable disease a category of illnesses that can be prevented when certain immunological drugs are given to induce active immunity
 VAERS Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System; VAERS monitors the safety of vaccines. This helps to identify new safety concerns and to make vaccines even safer.
 vagina the passage from the outside genital area of a women to the uterus
 vaginal related to the vagina, which is the passage from the outside genital area of a women to the uterus
 variant differing or deviating from the normal or ordinary
 varicella also called chickenpox in its initial form, or herpes zoster in a later form; an acute, highly contagious viral infection, usually of childhood, that causes fever, skin lesions, and malaise
 varicella² also called chickenpox; an acute, highly contagious viral infection, usually of childhood, that causes fever, skin lesions, and malaise; the virus can stay dormant in the body and cause herpes zoster at a later time
 varicella³ varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and zoster (shingles). VZV is a member of the herpesvirus family, closely related but distinct from herpes simplex virus. Symptoms include a rash composed of small blisters that are intensely itchy and also fever, loss of appetite, and fatigue.
 varicella immunoglobulin M (IgM) an antibody produced by the body in response to VZV infection; usually wanes over 6 months, so its presence indicates recent VZV infection
 varicella zoster virus the herpes zoster virus that causes chickenpox
 variola the Orthopoxvirus that causes smallpox in humans
 variola major the most common and severe form of smallpox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever
 vacuole a fluid-filled cavity inside a cell
 vasopressor a medication that raises blood pressure
 vasovagal relating to or involving blood vessels and the vagus nerve
 vastus lateralis the large muscle on the front and side of the thigh
vastus-lateralis injection site
 vector-borne carried by an animal, e.g., fly, tick, flea, rat, or dog, that is capable of transmitting disease; the most common vector for disease is the mosquito
 vegetative form of B. anthracis the growing and reproducing form of the bacteria, which makes the toxins that cause anthrax disease
 venom a poisonous secretion from an animal, usually transmitted by a bite or a sting
 ventilator also called a respirator; a machine that facilitates breathing when a person is unable to breathe unassisted
 ventricular arrhythmias irregular rhythm of the heart caused by a conduction problem in the ventricular area; examples include ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation
 ventrogluteal site the gluteus medius muscle in the hip
ventrogluteal injection site
 vesicle a small elevation of the outer layer of skin enclosing a watery liquid blister
 vesicular consisting of or charactertized by vesicles, which are small elevations of the outer layer of skin enclosing a watery liquid blister
 veterinarian a person who is qualified to practice veterinary medicine, which is the medical care of animals
 veterinary related to the care of animals
 Vi polysaccharide a polysaccharide associated with virulence (hence "Vi") in typhoid bacteria
 viable capable of living, developing, or germinating under favorable conditions
 vial a small, sealed container that holds powders or liquids
 VIG abbreviation for vaccinia immune globulin; a sterile solution containing vaccinia antibodies obtained from the plasma of donors who were recently given smallpox vaccine; used for passive immunization against smallpox and to treat certain adverse events related to vaccination with live virus vaccinia vaccine
 viral of or related to virus or illness caused by virus
 viral-like symptoms viral-like symptoms include fever, body aches, cough, sore throat, and headache
 viremia the presence of virus in the bloodstream
 virion an infective virus particle
 virologic of or related to the study of viruses and viral diseases
 virologic testing laboratory testing that detects the presence of virus in a clinical specimen, e.g., a body tissue or secretion
 virulence how able the bacteria is to cause disease
 virus a simple microbe, consisting of only nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
 viruses simple microbes that can cause disease; consist only of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
 VISs forms produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that explain to vaccine recipients, their parents, or their legal representatives both the benefits and risks of a vaccine. Federal law requires that VISs be handed out whenever (before each dose) certain vaccinations are given.
 viscerotropic tending to affect the internal organs of the abdomen and thorax
 viscosity the condition of being resistent to flow; "thickness"
 vital signs blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing rate
 volume expanders intravenous fluids that draw fluid back into the blood vessels from the tissues; replaces fluid lost from the vascular system
 vomiting "throwing up"; ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
 vulvar of or related to the external genitals of the female
 wanes gradually decreases
 well-demarcated having clear boundaries or edges
 West Nile fever a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, transfusions, transplants, and mother-to-child; affects the central nervous system, with no symptoms in 80% of people, mild symptoms (fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes) in 20% of people, and serious symptoms in about one in 150 people (high fever, headache, stiff neck, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness, and paralysis; neurological effects may be permanent
 West Nile virus virus transmitted by mosquitoes, transfusions, transplants, and mother-to-child; affects the central nervous system, with no symptoms in 80% of people, mild symptoms (fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes) in 20% of people, and serious symptoms in about one in 150 people (high fever, headache, stiff neck, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness, and paralysis; neurological effects may be permanent
 wheal a burning or itching elevation on the skin occurring where the vaccine is injected
 wheezing breathing with difficulty, producing a hoarse, whistling sound; indicates narrowing of airways
 white blood cells also called leukocytes; the major infection-fighting cells in the body that travel through the bloodstream to sites of infection; includes five types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes
 white pulp tissues in the spleen where white blood cells gather to search for their matching antigens
 whitlow also known as a felon; a purulent infection involving the pulp of the distal phalanx of the finger
 WHO World Health Organization
 whole-virus vaccine whole-virus influenza vaccine contains the whole virus, prepared in chicken eggs and then inactivated with chemicals
 wild virus a strain of virus that occurs naturally; not vaccine-related
 WMD abbreviation for weapon of mass destruction
 w/v abbreviation for weight per volume; used for dilutions
 Y-8 skill identifier an additional skill level possessed by certain military medical personnel that prepare them in the specialized fields of allergy and clinical immunology by instruction in basic and advanced sciences, areas of clinical and laboratory procedure, preparation of allergen extract prescriptions and the maintenance of an effective allergy and immunization clinic. An allergy technician must be able to assist an allergist in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who manifest any of the full spectrum of allergic and immunological disorders, support the Surgeon General's military immunization program and chemoprophylaxis programs, and function effectively in the absence of any immediate supervision and guidance.
 yeast a substance commonly used for baking; also used to make hepatitis B and HPV vaccines
 yeast protein a substance commonly used for baking; also used to make hepatitis B vaccine
 yellow fever an infectious tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes; characterized by high fever, jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding
 yellow fever² an infectious disease spread by mosquitoes mostly in tropical areas; symptoms include high fever, jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding
 yellow fever³ an infectious tropical disease spread by mosquitoes; symptoms include high fever, yellowing of whites of eyes and skin (jaundice), and sometimes gastrointestinal bleeding
 yellow fever* occurs only in Africa and South America. In South America sporadic infections occur almost exclusively in forestry and agricultural workers from occupational exposure in or near forests. In Africa the virus is transmitted in three geographic regions: principally and foremost, in the moist savanna zones of West and Central Africa during the rainy season; secondly, outbreaks occur occasionally in urban locations and villages in Africa; and finally, to a lesser extent, in jungle regions. Yellow fever is a viral disease transmitted between humans by a mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in travelers, but most countries have regulations and requirements for yellow fever vaccination that must be met prior to entering the country. General precautions to avoid mosquito bites should be followed. These include the use of insect repellent, protective clothing, and mosquito netting. Yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that has been used for several decades. A single dose confers immunity lasting 10 years or more. Adults and children older than 9 months can take this vaccine. Administration of immune globulin does not interfere with the antibody response to yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is only administered at designated yellow fever vaccination centers, the locations of which can usually be given by your local health department.